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Nursing Theory Graphic

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lorena ferrer

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of Nursing Theory Graphic

Science Unitary Human Beings
Humanbecoming Theory
Martha Rogers
Rosemarie Parse
Florence Nightingale
Environment Person Health Nursing
Environmental Theory
Three forms of comfort
Four contexts of comfort

Comfort Theory
Katherine Kolcaba
Rhythmical Patterns of Relating
Each person has their own values and unique
views of the world. "The quality of life is subjective and the nurse should accept quality of life as the patient sees it regardless of the nurse's objective assessment of the patient's quality of life" (Morris, 2006, para. 2). The nurse approaches the client as an individual who assigns unique meaning to their life situations.
People have rhythmical patterns of relating that include revealing-concealing, enabling-limiting, and connecting-separating which reveals their pattern for humanbecoming. The nurse provides full presence to the patient, inviting them to speak about situations without judgment. Insights are clarified, discoveries are made, and change is proposed as people see themselves and their situations in a new light (Alligood, 2010, p. 437-438).
Human beings constantly transform while moving toward their hopes and dreams. Transforming is about integrating unfamiliar ideas or activities into one's life. The desired change is defined by the person and not the nurse. The nurse trusts that people will actively seek the information they need (Alligood, 2010, p. 439).
Believes in the unity of person with the universe. "Health is a synthesis of values and a personal commitment to become the person one chooses to be. Persons are free to choose the meaning and significance of events" (Alligood, 2010, p. 435).
Believes that the "patient's environment should be altered to allow nature to act on the patient" (Alligood, 2010, p. 98), and that the main responsibility of a nurse is to provide a clean environment that is conducive to the health of the patient.
Environment is the setting that influences the health of the patient. It is both the physical and the psychological surroundings of the patient (Alligood, 2010).
The individual that receives care - physical, intellectual, emotional, social and spiritual (Alligood, 2010).
The preservation of health through prevention of illness and health promotion (Alligood, 2010).
"A spiritual calling (Alligood, 2010, p. 99)." Nurses improve the environment to help nature heal the patient. (Alligood, 2010)
"The intermediate state of being strengthened by having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence addressed in the four contexts of holistic human experience: physical, psycho spiritual, sociocultural, and environmental," (Kolcaba, 2010)
A specific need is met (Kolcaba, 2010).
For example: Relief of postoperative pain with pain medication, or repositioning, increases the patient’s comfort in the form of relief.
"A state of calm or contentment (Kolcaba, 2010)."
For example: Addressing and helping clients deal with stress and fears of a new cancer diagnosis can lead to ease in anxiety.
"Rising above one's problems or pain," (Kolcaba, 2010). Example: A patient with a BKA works hard in therapy and accepts help from his support system to learn how to walk again and regain independence. This person would be in a state of transcendence (Current Nursing, 2011).
"Pertaining to bodily sensations and homeostatic mechanisms" (Kolcaba, 2010). For example, pain perception, neuropathy symptoms, and vital sign readings.
“Pertaining to internal awareness of self, including esteem, concept, sexuality, and meaning in one’s life: one’s relationship to a higher order or being” (Kolcaba, 2010).
Exterior influences which can be manipulated to enhance comfort
"Pertaining to Interpersonal, family, and societal relationships. Also, to family traditions, rituals, and religious practices," (Kolcaba, 2010).
"Humans and the environment, as beings, are inseparable and co-extensive with the universe. Humans are energy fields. Humans and the environment are continually, simultaneously, and mutually exchanging energy with each other" (Sayre-Adams, 1993). THe human being and the environment are one. Nursing approaches the patient as a unitary human being (Alligood, 2010).
Four critical elements
Energy fields
Open systems
"Fundamental units of the living and non-living" (Alligood, 2010, p. 289). They consist of the human energy field and the environmental energy field. Each environmental field is specific to its human field.
The open nature of the human and environmental fields allows for an exchange of energy and matter between the fields. They are dynamic in nature. There are no barriers between the fields (Alligood, 2010).
Personal patterns are manifestations of the persons being and their interactions with the environment. Human behaviour can be regarded as manifestations of changing pattern (Alligood, 2010).
Three principles of Humanbecoming
Applying the Rogerian theory, the nurse caring for Debbie would try to repattern her energy field by manipulating her environmental field. Using touch therapy, the nurse provides comfort, relaxation, and pain relief by directly changing her energy field towards harmony.
Using the Humanbecoming theory, the nurse caring for Debbie would provide full presence to her. The purpose would be to identify meaning of the situation from Debbie's point of view and to develop a plan of care based on her goals and priorities.
Applying the Nightingale theory in the case of Debbie, the nurse would prioritize care by manipulating the environment at home. She would emphasize the importance of cleanliness, ventilation, warmth, and light.
Using the Comfort theory, the nurse caring for Debbie would assess her comfort needs and design interventions to meet these needs. She may focus on providing relief of pain, ease her stress and fears, and support her transcendence to rise above the cancer diagnosis. Debbie will gain strength if comfort needs are met, and will be more likely to demonstrate a willingness to learn.
All four theories recognize the interaction between the person and their environment and the nurses ability to influence or manipulate the environment to positively affect their patient's well being.
Both Parse and Kolcaba discuss transcendance, the patient's ability to overcome obstacles and rise above them.
Nightingale's and Kolcaba's theories are more concrete, whereas Rogers' and Parse's theories are more abstract.
Roger and Parse believe in unity, the patient and the universe are one and are dynamic. Both describe patterns used by patients to interact with others and their environment.
Pandimensionality describes "a nonlinear domain without spatial or temporal attributes" (Rogers, 1991, p. 7). It describes the universe as being limitless.

Alligood, M. R. (2010). Nursing Theory: Utilization & application (4th ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo: Mosby Elsevier.

Current Nursing. (2011, February 10). Comfort theory. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/comfort_theory_Kathy_Kolcaba.html

Kolcaba PhD, RN, K., Stoner PhD, RN, M., & Durr BSN, RN, K. (2010). Comfort Line. Retrieved from http://www.thecomfortline.com/index.html

Morris, D. L. (2006). Parse’s theory of nursing: Human becoming theory. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/189391401

Rogers, M. E . ( 1970 ). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing . Philadelphia : F.A. Davis .

Sayre-Adams, J. (1993, April). Therapeutic touch - principles and practice. Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 1(2), 96-99.
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