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Transcript of Performance Art
of Play and Chance FUTURISM -a distinct and definable medium in the feminist arts program, 1970
•Manifesto attacks bourgeois and museums
•He wants art to violate any spatial restrictions and he battles with the concept of ownership as it pertains to art. Performance artists are often accused of being exhibitionist; explicit; or extremely skeptical.
One of the means used by these artists involves manipulating the media—to advertise their events, often actually announcing events that have not and will not happen. The document “nonevent” has become an important element in the performance art in the recent years.
He often announced events that did not occur in order to stir up controversy •The Dadaist performances which dated to 1916 profoundly influenced the directions of avant-garde and performance art throughout this century.
•Occurred originally in the Cabaret Voltaire in
Zurich, Switzerland, they spread to France which
eventually died out in the mid-1920’s when
they were replaced by the projects of the
surrealists. •Committed to the principle of INNOVATION,
SPONTANEITY, & ANTIART.
•Artists were constantly battling with one
another, breaking away, forming new
•Dadaists forged new movements—offered
their art under the name of surrealism.
Futurists appeared as Dadaists. •led by the Italian poet & playwright F.T. Marinetti
•celebrated man’s relationship to the machine and to technology and they heralded the new mechanized humanity
•fascination of non-human forces- forces of the machine performance art is a performance presented to an audience, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience participation. The performance can be live or via media; the performer can be present or absent. It can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, space, the performer's body, or presence in a medium, and a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, in any venue or setting and for any length of time. The actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. "A hybrid of performance, originating in futurist and Dadaist performances, that often draws on visuals, media art, dance, and music and appropriates its materials from pop culture, often blurring the boundary between art and life. Performance art can be loosely improvisatory, relying on environment, chance, and even found objects, ot tightly scripted; it can function as anti-aesthetic statement, political or cultural intervention, social practice, or theatrical or narrative art. "
-Carol Simpson Stern and Bruce Henderson, Performance: Texts and Contexts •FUTURISM
•CUBIST-SURREALISM’S Synchronic Visions and Dream Visions
•HAPPENINGS Marinetti and his circle are famous for their fascination with variety theater, cabarets & noise music-offers harshly dissonant, cacophonous sounds that imitate military sounds or take the whole range of sounds from life. *Futurist performers developed their own gesture language to instruct one another on just the style of declamation they sought.
*Marinetti urged the performers to use body actions that imitated the staccato movements of machines. “Gesticulate geometrically.”
*Russolo and Marinetti were both attracted to noises in life. TRISTAN ZARA- Father of Dada
Travesties- brings together 3 revolutionaries
(Tristan Zara; James Joyce; Lehin)
•Its interest in chance as an integral element in art making
•Its use of nonsense and noncausal, illogical structure.
•Its subjective cry – which releases the inexhaustible and uncontrollable unconscious in spontaneous joy
•Its art establishment elements Several aspects of Dadaist Venture: Dada- was chosen randomly by opening a German- French dictionary
-the word means “yes,yes” in Romanian and Russian
-in French it means
“hobby horse” -a child’s toy or fad In Dadaist manifests,the word is repeated
again and again usually in such a manner that it
appears to be just nonsense, a noise repeated for no
other purpose than the deliciously silly pleasure it gives
or for its sharp staccato sound that dismisses everything of value.
Dada abolished memory, the past, the future, logic and all prophets. It opposed good manners and complacency. •Dadaists used “chance” as a method of governing both the selection and the arrangement of materials in the their performances. “Law of chance” It became an organizing principle in the structure of the work.
•Dadaists used found objects, the laws of chance, and the spectacle of unrelated materials produced simultaneously to achieve the spontaneously joyous art that was the object of their aesthetic. •Engage in play, improvisation and the
development of new rules to break away
from more formal structures and create a
new kind of art.
•Often looked for the same kind of
materials used in ritual, the social
drama and public celebrations. CUBIST-SURREALIST Aesthetic of Simultaneity and Performance Art -Picasso/Baroque
•Cubist and surrealistic art also mix spheres of meaning, combining objects from the real room and the real world with objects drawn from a dream or hallucination.
•Principles of collage and assemblage govern many of the artworks produced by the surrealists.
Surrealism- pure psychic automatism by means of which we propose to express either verbally, in writing, or in the some other fashion what really goes on in the mind. First Manifesto- Andre Breton, 1924
•Max Ernest also used the principles of collage and
assemblage to create “multiple vision”.
•-Bringing unexpected and contradictory images onto
the same canvass are characteristic of much
•Surrealism also took the occasion of the
“nonevent” to a new plateau.
•Francis Picabia’s “ballet” Relache – one of the most
remarkable pieces of this era.
•First appeared on the art scene in 1959 in Allam Kaprow’s “18 Happenings in 6 Parts” at the Reuben Gallery in N.Y.
•Kaprow chose the word happening in preference to the words like theater piece, performance or game because he wanted to suggest in an offhand way that something, as he says, “rather spontaneous just happens to happen”
HAPPENINGS •Kirby defines the happening as “a purposefully composed form of theatre in which diverse alogical elements; including non-matrixed performing are organized in a compartmental structure” – the performer is simply executing a task.
•Interpretation- the study of literature through the medium of oral performance –Wallace Bacon
•The audience are involved in the performance
•The chance readings of the parts handed to the audience members, the chance synchronizing of audience readings to taped reading, the juxtaposition of “life events” and the omnipresent “director” into whose hands the audience had by chance committed itself.