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BIBL 102 T14a (Fa '14) - OT Prophets

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Hartmut Scherer

on 28 November 2014

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Transcript of BIBL 102 T14a (Fa '14) - OT Prophets

(Adapted from Zondervan Academic Resources for "Grasping God's Word)
OT Prophets
Nature of OT prophetic literature
Major prophets
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Minor prophets
Little in our culture that resembles the OT prophetic literature
Only a small amount of OT prophecy deals with events still future to us
“Less than 2 percent of Old Testament prophecy is messianic. Less than 5 percent specifically describes the New Covenant age. Less than
1 percent concerns events yet to come.”
Fee and Stuart
Prophets
proclaim more
than they predict
Prophets make extensive
use
of the
figurative language
of poetry
Prophetic books are primarily anthologies
- Anthologies are
collections
of shorter
units, usually
oral messages
proclaimed
publicly to the people of Israel or Judah
- Look for a few
major themes

repeated over and over
Historical-cultural and theological context
- Identify the historical-cultural context
- Be familiar with Israel's and Judah's history
- Theological context of prophetic message:
the Mosaic covenant
Basic Prophetic Message
Prophets function as God’s prosecuting attorneys
Prophetic message has three basic points:
1. You have broken the covenant;
you had better repent!
- syncretism, faithful
husband/unfaithful wife
Idolatry
Social justice
Religious ritualism
2. No repentance?
Then judgment!
- Plea for repentance, but proclaim
severe consequences of rebellion
- Horrific invasions
- Loss of Promised land
3. Yet, there is hope beyond the
judgment for a glorious future
restoration.
- New exodus (Isaiah), new covenant (Jeremiah),
new presence of the Spirit (Ezekiel and Joel)
- Messianic promises and future predictions
Interpretation and application of basic message
- Must pass through filter of NT teaching
- Sin is an offense against God and demands judgment
- NT: judgment of death for Christian’s sin
transferred to Christ
- If Christians fail to repent, their fellowship
with God will be damaged
- Ultimate fulfillment of promises in Christ
- God is in the business of forgiving and
restoring people
- No longer under covenant of law, so different for
believers and unbelievers
- Focus on relational aspects of our sin (marriage analogy)
- Sinning against God causes him to hurt emotionally
Interpretation
Application
Idolatry
– job, success, money, TV, clothes, grades …
Social justice
– poor, elderly, minorities, children …
Religious ritualism
– rituals function as means or ends?
Predictive passages
Small portion of prophet’s message point to events that are still future for us
Predictions could refer to:
- Return of Jewish exiles to Israel
(past for us)
- First coming of Jesus Christ
(past for us)
- Second coming of Jesus Christ
(still future for us)
Difficult to determine whether the
prophets are describing events that will
occur within their lifetime
(near view)
or events that will occur much later
(far view).
near view
far view
- Therefore, it's almost
impossible to outline
-
Not
usually arranged
chronologically
- Yet the prophet’s message
comes through loud and clear
- ritual substitutes for relationship
- widows, orphans, foreigners
Interpretation
Interpretation
We should
be cautious
when interpreting details of predictive prophecy.
It is possible that the prophets have intentionally blurred together these future events so that their readers will focus on the broader
theological principles.
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