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Karakalpak, Black Hat of Uzbekistan
Transcript of Karakalpak, Black Hat of Uzbekistan
(Koshes) Karakalpak Tribes
(Uru) Social Structure Karakalpaks Qon'irat On To'rt Uriw Qitay Keneges Man'g'it Shu'llik Jawing'ir Qipshq 12 13 8 4 Alayat Mu'yten Ashamayli Poldawli Qostamg'aili Balg'ali Quramayin 63 7 "The difference between a tribe and a clan is defined by matrimonial alliances." (David and Sue Richardson) "Exogamy: it is not possible to marry within one's own clan, but it is possible to marry into another clan within one's own tribe" (David and Sue Richardson) Population: 520,000
Ethnicity: Turkic People -- Kazakh -- Karakalpak "In Central Asia, herds, "consist, as the Mongols say of the five animals: sheep, goats, horses, cattle, and camels." (Eickelmen 7) "Only 9 out of 1000 people moved from rural areas to cities in Uzbekistan in 1989..." (Eickelmen 86)
The Uzbeks were known by their counterparts as "oasis-dwelling cultivators" (Eickelmen 46-47) Karakalpaks make their living by raising livestock, fishing, and maintaining gardens. Patrilineal -- line of descent is traced through the males. Large families are desired in Karakalpak society and as many as 4 generations live together in the same house. Yurts -- summer homes (tents) of the people are decorated by the women of the tribe with woven carpets Children are taught to read at a young age but are also taught skills to survive, such as cooking, hunting, making things with leather, bone, and wood Primary Religion: ISLAM Religious Factors Majority of Karakalpaks are Sunni Muslims (78 %)
The rest of the population claim to be non-religious (22%). Sufi Islam is also practiced within the villages of the Karakalpaks.
Sufis hypnotize themselves after a time of frantic dancing and chanting to Allah. The government and its constitution are secular. "The Law requires religious activity to take place within the registered organizations" (Khalid 176). Sunni Muslims do not like to cause discourse within politics, so they conform to the "well-trodden path", a distinct characteristic of Karakalpak people. Communism's hold on the Uzbeki people is evident through their non- belief in a God or in their desire to follow the "well-trodden path" as a good Muslim. Cultural Factors Hospitality When a person is invited to a Uzbek household, he or she is expected to bring a small gift and will receive a small gift in return. Tea is served to the guest along with dried fruit and sweet confections (Harlan 76). Sometimes a guest is asked to sit cross-legged (Harlan 76). A common practice of Uzbeks and their guests is to eat the tea leaves after they have drank the tea (Harlan 76). Greetings One should not shake hands with another person with his left hand. Men generally do not shake hands with or touch women in any way in public. "Assalomu Alaykum!" Uzbek men greet other men by placing their left hand on their heart, signifying that the greeting is coming from deep within their heart. Close friends and family members kiss one another on both cheeks. Holidays Ramadan Navruz -- spring -time New Year Today, Uzbeks still serve a traditional meal of "sumalyak", which tastes like molasses-flavored cream of wheat and is made from flour and sprouted wheat grains. Sumalyak is cooked slowly on a wood fire, sometimes with the addition of spices. Sprouted grain is a symbol of life, heat, abundance and health. Lifecycles Birth is important -- the parents of the child visit relatives constantly when the baby is first born Schooling is strict; children learn submission High literacy rate --almost 100% of the population Time Relaxed attitude toward time -- event oriented Values -Islamic tenets
-Respect for elders
-Generosity and hospitality to people Women in culture Follow strict gender roles (part of Islamic tenets): cooking, cleaning, taking care of children Discriminated against in the workplace Superstitions "The yurt owners smeared the uwıqs (roof sticks) with butter, and hung pepper, onion, salt, and adıraspan (dried herb) on the kerege (doorframe). They believed that through these rituals everyone in the yurt would live well and remain protected from the evil eye" (David and Sue Richardson). Oral tradition for storytelling
Native songs with diverse sounds and themes Games ılaq oyın: game played on horseback using the headless carcass of a goat Food and Drink Karakalpaks eat hearty meals full of carbohydrates such as potatoes pasta, and bread Influence from the Soviet Union brought in vodka as a popular beverage Marriage "A woman is given a dowry (gifts and money for her new married life) by her parents. She is also presented with bride gifts by the groom's parents. The new wife moves in with her husband's family" (Akiner, Critchlow, Thomas) Marriageable when they are 16 years old and most marriages are arranged "... I was purchased as goods,
For a pitiful fifty tuwar.
Evil father, but he is already old". Husband needs to pay a dowry for his bride (cattle, produce, money) but until that is completely paid, he does not live with his wife. She is to live with her parents and is able to "sow her wild oats" if she pleases. Then once the dowry is paid, she must live with her husband and his family and take care of all of them