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The Frankfurt School
Transcript of The Frankfurt School
- even working classes have a vested interest in preserving it
(links to Gramsci's ideas on hegemonic consensus)
working class no longer have a desire to overthrow capitalism industrialization of culture
Hollywood Studio & star system, TV, pop music
illusion of individualism celebrity culture is standardization and manufacturing of myths, masquerading as a celebration of individuality
Adorno condemns the uniformity and conformity of mass popular culture Adorno: "conformity has replaced consciousness" popular music is "catharsis for the masses";
it breeds dependence & conformity low vs high culture- the criticism is that this is an extremely elitist view of culture
but the Frankfurt School was primarily interested in the concept of popular culture from a neo-Marxist perspective Walter Benjamin took a more charitable view of
popular culture. For him, industrialisation (film, photography etc) meant that culture became more democratic and accessible Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer
& Walter Benjamin the culture industry is a form of mass deception cultural products are commodities produced
by a capitalist economy choice and diversity are illusions
- in fact for Adorno, cultural commodities are standardized, uniform and ultimately 'authoritarian' they are also empty & mind-numbing lowest common denominator dominant ideology / dominant reading- no scope for oppositional reading in mainstream culture = ?