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Transcript of Stakeholders
IT developments and/or
proposed solutions Stakeholders Social/ Ethical significance
(Strand 1) IT Systems
(Strand 3 Application to specific scenarios
(Strand 2) 1.1Reliability and integrity
Reliability refers to the operation of hardware, the design of software, the accuracy of data or the correspondence of data with the real world. Data may be unreliable if it has been entered incorrectly or if it becomes outdated. The reliability of machines, software and data determines our confidence in their value.
Integrity refers to safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of stored data. Data lacks integrity when it has been changed accidentally or tampered with. Examples of data losing integrity are where information is duplicated in a relational database and only one copy is updated or where data entries have been maliciously altered. 3.1Hardware
The hardware topic deals with a computer system consisting of input devices, output devices, a central processing unit and storage. ITGS students are required to understand the meaning of the terms and concepts listed here and, where appropriate, briefly describe how they work. 2.1Business and employment
Banks, including ATM (automatic teller machines), EFT (electronic funds transfer), hotels, supermarkets, travel agencies.
Online businesses (e-commerce)
Working practices such as teleworking and home working.
Airline reservation systems, navigation, package tracking, traffic control systems, IT systems in cars.
The coverage of business and employment should address the IT systems that exist as well as the ethical issues and social impacts that arise from the increased use of information technologies for both employers and employees. Students should be aware of the range of different business environments, ranging from a traditional (offline) business to businesses that are exclusively online. 1.2Security
Security refers to the protection of hardware, software, machines and networks from unauthorized access. Security measures include restricted access to machines and networks for certain employees or to prevent access by hackers. The degree of security of information systems largely determines society’s confidence in the information contained in the systems. 1.3Privacy and anonymity
Privacy is the ability of individuals and groups to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about themselves is shared with others. At its extreme, privacy becomes anonymity when, for instance, a person uses it to conceal his or her true identity in order to cyber-bully someone else. Conversely, excessive privacy could also conceal the perpetrators of criminal, terrorist or computer hacking acts from law enforcement agencies. 1.4Intellectual property
Intellectual property includes ideas, discoveries, writings, works of art, software, collections and presentations of data. Copyright, trademarks and patents exist to protect intellectual property. However, the easy and accurate duplication methods made available through IT can undermine such protection. 1.5Authenticity
Authenticity means establishing a user’s identity beyond reasonable doubt. Authenticating the user is crucial in many scenarios, particularly in business and legal matters. A simple example of authentication is a user login to a network. A more advanced example would be the use of encrypted digital signatures in a business transaction or the use of watermarking on digital photographs. 1.6The digital divide and equality of access
The growth of the use of IT systems has led to disparities in the use of, and access to, information technologies. Disparities exist not only internationally between countries, but also within countries between different socio-economic groups as well as within what may appear to be relatively homogenous groups. This may lead to groups or individuals without access to IT being disadvantaged. For example, while telelearning may bring previously unavailable opportunities to everyone’s doorstep, factors such as the cost and availability of hardware, software or access to the internet may create a “digital divide”. 1.7Surveillance
Surveillance is the use of IT to monitor the actions of people. For example, monitoring may be used to track, record and assess employees’ performance. It can be used to support claims for promotion or to ensure that employees follow the organization’s internet policy appropriately.
1.8Globalization and cultural diversity
Globalization means the diminishing importance of geographical, political, economic and cultural boundaries. IT has played a major role in reducing these boundaries. For example, any dramatic event anywhere in the world can be broadcast almost instantly by television or on the internet. However, the new “global village” may lead to the extinction of minority languages. 1.9Policies
Policies are enforceable measures intended to promote appropriate and discourage inappropriate use relating to information technologies. They can be developed by governments, businesses, private groups or individuals. They normally consist of rules governing access to, or use of, information, hardware, software and networks. For example, a school policy on the use of IT would consist of each user signing an acceptable-use policy. It would also address unlawful access to the network through, for example, identity theft or using hacking software, and how these transgressions would be treated. Many websites also require users to agree to specific policies before allowing access to their services.
Policies also affect the exchange of information, for example, by making it subject to copyright laws and raising people’s awareness of plagiarism. In general, policies can promote or restrict access, guide behaviour, require the fulfillment of certain conditions prior to or during use, or need to be developed to address unforeseen issues such as cyber-bullying. 1.10Standards and protocols
Standards and protocols are technical rules and conventions that enable compatibility and therefore facilitate communication or interoperability between different IT systems and their components. They might govern the design and use of hardware, software and information. For example, the communication protocols used on the internet, the ASCII representations for characters, or the design of the printer port on a personal computer are all governed by standards. 1.11People and machines
The use of IT systems brings significant advantages, for instance in ease of use, being available 24/7, or through its use rather than exposing humans to a potentially hazardous environment. However, this can raise concerns about the rate at which technology is being introduced and issues that may arise from insufficient testing in critical situations such as air traffic control. The ultimate fear of many people is that future systems will be programmed to make decisions that would be better taken by humans, such as the decision to deploy nuclear weapons.
There are also social impacts such as internet addiction, where people feel that they can never get away from IT and are trapped on a “digital treadmill”. 1.12Digital citizenship
Digital citizenship can be defined as appropriate behaviour that represents the responsible, ethical and legal approach that individuals take in any situation with respect to the use of IT. Digital citizenship permeates, in one way or another, all of the preceding social and ethical considerations. 2.2Education and training
Distance learning over large areas
Hospitals, prisons, retirement homes, schools.
Use of IT in teaching and learning
Educational software, online research and forums, virtual learning environments (VLE), e-books, Web 2.0 educational networks, use of mobile devices, game-based learning, fully immersive environments, filtering and monitoring of students’ internet use, 1-to-1, m-learning.
Hardware and network technologies in the classroom
Laptop computers, handheld devices, interactive whiteboards.
Provision for special needs
Inclusive software, Braille keyboards, accessibility.
Record-keeping of staff and finances, libraries, student records, EDI (electronic data interchange).
The development of new IT systems is revolutionizing the delivery of education and training. Technological advances have led to an increase in the dependency of students, staff and administrators on the supporting IT systems. 2.3Environment
Modelling and simulations
Climate change, forecasting natural events or demographic changes.
Sensors, probes, real-time data collection.
Remote sensing devices, satellite imagery, tagging.
Mapping, virtual globes
Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), cell/mobile phone tracking, online journey planning, online maps.
Development, disposal and recycling of IT equipment, monitoring organizations such as the Basel Action Network.
Use of non-renewable resources for manufacturing components, electrical consumption of IT systems.
The environmental theme covers a wide range of topics. The increasing processing capability of mobile devices has enabled almost universal access to information, but the increased number of devices has impacted on health and the environment. 2.4Health
Diagnostic and therapeutic tools
Surgery, prosthetic devices, diagnostic technology, rehabilitation, patient monitoring, individualized IT solutions for disabled people, accessibility.
Medical information, administration, marketing and sales
Medical advice, e-prescriptions, telemedicine, electronic health records, international health cards.
Global collaboration, database for the Human Genome Project, improving patient rehabilitation.
Psychological and physical considerations
Internet addiction, repetitive strain injury (RSI), ergonomics.
IT has revolutionized medicine. With the increasing size of the world’s population, the effective management of health care using IT systems will become even more important. 2.5Home and leisure
Homes and home networks
IT management of home systems: for example, lighting, security, entertainment centres.
Films, photographs, music, arts, online and digital games, gambling, virtual worlds.
Chat rooms, messaging, blogging, file sharing, wikis.
Published and broadcast information
Books, newspapers, digital radio and TV, e-books, podcasts.
Monitoring organizations such as the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).
Hardware, software and networks
Portable digital devices and their ability to remotely control other devices, IT-enabled appliances.
The growth of the internet and the ability to transfer information globally in real time has revolutionized the way in which increasing numbers of people live. The global online society, the development of English as the dominant online language, and the constant availability of information may lead to a homogenization of peoples, with some cultures being subsumed into others or lost. 2.6Politics and government
Online campaigning, voting, lobbying, fund-raising and advertising.
Government information sites
For example, travel warnings, tourist information, environmental information and warnings, government policies, city government websites.
Access to, and updating of, personal information held on government databases
Collection, storage and updating of personal data: for example, driving licence, TV licence, tax returns, passport applications and renewals, medical records, military service records, social security information, online police records.
Government control and use of information
Censorship, data matching across agencies, archiving, biometric data, national identity cards.
Law and order
Police surveillance, terrorist monitoring, DNA data.
Cyberwarfare, smart weapons, espionage, battlefield technology.
The importance of IT is becoming increasingly evident in political campaigns. With increased amounts of information available to governments, ethical issues relating to its possible misuse are becoming more and more important. The computer system
Types of computers: personal digital assistant (PDA), laptop, desktop computer
Central processing unit (CPU), microprocessor, clock speed: for example, megahertz (MHz), gigahertz (GHz), terahertz (THz)
Primary storage: read-only memory (ROM), random-access memory (RAM)
Secondary storage: optical, magnetic, flash memory: for example, USB (universal serial bus) flash drive
Bit, byte, kilobyte (KB), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB), terabyte (TB), petabyte (PB), exabyte (EB), zettabyte (ZB), yottabyte (YB)
Character encoding: ASCII (Unicode and American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
Input and output devices
Keyboards, mice, touch pads
Optical mark recognition (OMR), optical character recognition (OCR), magnetic ink character recognition (MICR), radio frequency identification (RFID), radio tag, bar code scanners, magnetic stripe readers
Smart card readers
Webcams, digital cameras, digital video cameras
Sensors, probes, real-time data collection
Composite devices: for example, game controllers
Touch-sensitive devices: for example, pads
Printers, monitors, speakers, projectors
CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory), DVD (digital versatile/video disk) readers and burners 3.2Software
The software topic deals with the software associated with a typical computer system. ITGS students are required to understand the meaning of the terms and concepts listed here and, where appropriate, briefly describe how they work or their relevance to the user.
Applications: word processing, desktop publishing, presentations, photo and video editing, music and sound development, website development
System software: operating systems and utilities
Interfaces: graphical user interface (GUI), command line interface (CLI), menu-driven interface (MDI), voice
Licensing: shareware, public domain, freeware, proprietary and open source software
Licensing authorities: Business Software Alliance (BSA)
Commercial and custom-built (bespoke) software
Registration, serial number, warranty, copyright agreement
User support: manuals, assistants, tutorials, help systems, “Read Me” files
Macros, templates, wizards
File formats, for example, RTF (rich text format), TXT (text), PDF (portable document format), XLS (Excel spreadsheet), SWF (small web format), ZIP (zipped file), JPG/JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group bitmap), PNG (portable network graphics bitmap), CSV (comma-separated values), HTM/HTML (hypertext markup language)
Data transfer: ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), tab-delimited text file, zipped file 3.3Networks
This topic addresses the role of networks in a range of different scenarios. Almost all businesses, institutions and organizations, and an increasing number of households, are linked by networks.
Client, host, server
Grid computing, distributed processing
Ethernet, peer-to-peer (P2P)
Local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), virtual LAN (VLAN), wireless LAN (WLAN), home network
Internet, intranet, extranet, virtual private network (VPN)
Routers, switches, hubs
Connection types: optical fibre, cable, wireless technologies such as wireless fidelity (WiFi), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMax), Bluetooth, microwave
Network operating systems and utility software
Storage technologies: for example, SAN (storage area network), RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks)
Bit rates 3.4Internet
The internet and World Wide Web are omnipresent in contemporary society. This topic introduces ITGS students to the technology that enables access to the internet. The tools and applications that contribute to the creation of web-based resources and websites are addressed under topic 3.6, “Multimedia/digital media”. Fundamentals
WWW (World Wide Web), URL (uniform resource locator), internet, intranet, extranet
Internet protocols: for example, HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol), HTTPS (hypertext transfer protocol secure), FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol)
Modem, browser, internet service provider (ISP), bandwidth, download, upload, streaming audio/video, compression, decompression, cache
Domain names, domain name system (DNS)
Features of a website: for example, hyperlinks, navigation, metatags, tags, forms
Features of a browser: for example, bookmarks, visited links, tabs
Adding functionality to a browser (for example, plug-ins)
Data-driven websites: for example, active server page extended (ASPX), personal home page (PHP)
Site management: for example, web hosting, uploading
Other site use: for example, bounce rate, click-through rate (CTR), avatar, profile
Search engines, web crawler/spider, search directories, search techniques, filtering, keyword density, keyword prominence, ranking of sites
Social networking: for example, newsgroups, message boards, chat rooms, forums, instant messaging
Email, email server, list server
Web 2.0, Web 3.0 and beyond, collaborative online tools: for example, wikis, blogs, micro-blogs, RDF (resource description framework) site summary feeds, RSS (really simple syndication) feeds, mashups, forums, social bookmarking, online collaborative applications, podcasts, photocasts, vidcasts, social networking sites, templates, tagging, viral marketing, webcasts, widgets, virtual worlds and learning environments
Web databases, encyclopedias 3.5Personal and public communications
Developments in technology have allowed an increasing number of mobile devices to be developed that enable people to communicate anytime, anyplace, anywhere. There is a wealth of information available to society that can be accessed on demand and has changed the way in which people behave. Technologies
Personal digital assistants (PDAs) and handheld digital devices
Global positioning systems (GPS), navigation systems and geotagging
Digital radio and TV
Accessing, distributing and sharing text, photos, video, audio, television via portable and non-portable digital devices
Synchronization of information between portable systems, desktop systems, servers and web-based services
Remote access: for example, teleworking, distance learning
Telephony: voice over internet protocol (VOIP)