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Transcript of Performance-based Assessments
Performance-based Assessment Product-Oriented
Performance-based Assessment - it entails not only what students know but what they can do with what they know.
- it involves not only knowledge and abilities but values, attitudes, and habits of mind. Performance-based Assessments To assess actual student performance by the use of a variety of alternative ways to evaluate students' progress. Outcome Learners' Experiences We want to know the actual task performance rather than the output or product of the activity. The learning objectives are stated in directly observable behaviors of the students. Such behaviors range from a up to the beginner/novice level level of an expert. Competencies Groups or clusters of skills and abilities needed for a particular task. An example of learning competencies for a process-oriented performance-based assessment: Task: Recite a Poem by Edgar Allan Poe, "The Raven". Objectives: The activity aims to enable the students to recite a poem entitled "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe. Specifically: 1. Recite the poem from a memory without referring to notes;
2. Use appropriate hand and body gestures in delivering the piece;
3. Maintain eye contact with the audience while reciting the poem;
4. Pronounce the words clearly and with proper diction. Constitutes the
for this particular task Simple Competencies Complex Competencies Speak with a well-modulated voice Recite a poem with feeling using appropriate voice quality, facial expressions and hand gestures Draw a straight line from one point to another point Color a leaf with a green crayon Construct an equilateral triangle given three non-collinear points Draw and color a leaf with green crayon (consist of two or more skills) Task Designing The teacher must ensure that the particular learning process to be observed contributes to the overall understanding of the subject or course. Some generally accepted standards for tasks: Identifying an activity that would highlight the competencies to be evaluated.
Identifying an activity that would entail more or less the same sets of competencies.
Finding a task that would be interesting and enjoyable for the students. Example The topic is on understanding biological diversity. Possible Task Design: Bring the students to a pond/creek and ask them to find all living organisms.
Also, bring them to the school playground also to find living organisms.
Observe how the students will develop a system for finding and classifying the organisms, and concluding the differences in biological diversity of the two sites. Scoring Rubrics is a scoring scale used to assess student performance along a task-specific set of criteria. Contains the essential criteria for the task and where
appropriate levels of performance for each criterion is typically created to measure student performance against a pre-determined set of criteria. Example Recitation Rubric Criteria Number of Appropriate Hand Gestures Appropriate Facial Expression Voice Inflection Incorporate proper ambiance through feelings in the voice Lots of inappropriate facial expression Monotone voice used Recitation contains very little feelings 1 - 4 5 - 9 Few inappropriate facial expression Can vary voice inflection with difficulty Recitation has some feelings 10 - 12 No apparent inappropriate facial expression Can easily vary voice inflection Recitation fully captures ambiance through feelings in the voice x1 x1 x2 x3 1 2 3 Descriptors spell out what is expected of students at each level of performance for each criterion. Why include Levels of Performance? Clearer expectations Students know what is expected of them and teachers know what to look for in student performance. More consistent and objective assessment Permit the teacher to more consistently and objectively distinguish between good and bad performance, or between superior, mediocre and poor performance. Better feedback Allows the teacher to provide more detailed feedback to students. Analytic Versus Holistic Rubrics An articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance for each criterion. analytic rubric When to choose an A does not list separate levels of performance for each criterion. Instead, it assigns a level of performance by assessing performance across multiple criteria as a whole. holistic rubric 3 - Excellent Speaker included 10-12 changes in hand gestures
no apparent inappropriate facial expressions
utilizes proper voice inflection
can create proper ambiance for the poem 2 - Good Speaker included 5-9 changes in hand gestures
few inappropriate facial expressions
have some inappropriate voice inflection changes
almost creating proper ambiance 1 - Poor Speaker included 1-4 changes in hand gestures
lots of inappropriate facial expressions
use monotone voice
cannot create proper ambiance Example When to choose a Tend to be used when a quick or gross judgment needs to be made.
If the assessment is a minor one, such as brief homework assignment. Tend to be used when teachers want to assess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria. Levels of Performance How many should we include in the rubric? There is no specific number of levels of performance a rubric should or should not possess.
It will vary depending on the task or the situation. Oral presentation rubric Example Amount of eye contact might be an important criterion: makes eye contact with audience never sometimes always makes eye contact with audience never rarely sometimes usually always makes eye contact with audience never rarely sometimes usually Fewer levels of performance be included initially because: easier and quicker to administer
easier to explain to students (and others)
easier to expand than larger rubrics are to shrink The actual student performance is assessed such as a completed project or work that demonstrates levels of task achievement. through a product The learning competencies associated with products or outputs are linked with an assessment of the level of manifested by the product. expertise Target at least three (3) levels:
novice/beginner's level, skilled level, and expert level. We can define learning competencies for products or outputs in the following way: Level 1: Does the finished product or project illustrate the minimum expected parts or functions? (Beginner)
Level 2: Does the finished product or project contain additional parts and functions on top of the minimum requirements which tend to enhance the final output? (Skilled level)
Level 3: Does the finished product contain the basic minimum parts and functions, have additional features on top of the minimum, and is aesthetically pleasing? (Expert level) Example The desired product is a representation of a cubic prism made out of cardboard in an elementary geometry class. Learning competencies: The final product submitted by the students must: 1. possess the correct dimensions (5"x5"x5").
2. be sturdy, made of durable cardboard and properly fastened together.
3. be pleasing to the observer, preferably properly colored for aesthetic purposes. (minimum specifications) (skilled specifications) (expert level) The teacher needs concrete evidence that the student has achieved a certain level of competence based on submitted products and projects. Evidence-based Task Designing The design of the task in this context depends on what the teacher desires to observe as outputs of the students. Concepts that may be associated with task designing: a. Complexity Level of complexity of the project needs to be within the range of ability of the students. b. Appeal It should be interesting enough so that students are encouraged to pursue the task to completion. c. Creativity The project needs to encourage students to exercise creativity and divergent thinking. d. Goal-Based The project must be produced in order to attain a learning objective. Example Paper folding is a traditional Japanese art. However, it can be used as an activity to teach the concept of plane and solid figures in geometry. Provide the students with a given number of colored papers and ask them to construct as many plane and solid figures from these papers without cutting them (by paper folding only) Scoring Rubrics are descriptive scoring schemes that are developed by teachers or other evaluators to guide the analysis of the products or processes of students' efforts. Criteria Setting The criteria for scoring rubrics are statements which identify
in the final output. what really counts Quality
Aesthetics Identify sub-statements that would make the major criteria more focused and objective. Example Scoring an essay on: "Three Hundred Years of Spanish Rule in the Philippines" From major criterion: QUALITY Sub-stataments: Interrelates the chronological events in an interesting manner
Identifies the key players in each period of the Spanish rule and the roles that they played
Succeeds in relating the history of Philippine Spanish rule (rated as Professional, Not quite professional, and novice) Example Example of a scoring rubric designed to evaluate college writing samples Major Criterion: Meets Expectations for a First Draft of a Professional Report Sub-statements: The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are apparent in the document: 1. Effective transitions are used throughout.
2. A professional format is used.
3. The graphics are descriptive and clearly support the document's purpose. The document is clear and concise and appropriate grammar is used throughout. Adequate The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are apparent in the document: 1. Basic transitions are used.
2. A structured format is used.
3. Some supporting graphics are provided, but are not clearly explained. The document contains minimal distractions that appear in a combination of the following forms: 1. Flow in thought
2. Graphical presentations
3. Grammar/mechanics Needs Improvement Organization of document is difficult to follow due to a combination of following: 1. Inadequate transitions
2. Rambling format
3. Insufficient or irrelevant information
4. Ambiguous graphics The document contains numerous distractions that appear in the combination of the following forms: 1. Flow in thought
2. Graphical presentations
Inadequate There appears to be no organization of the document's contents.
Sentences are difficult to read and understand. are scoring rubrics an appropriate evaluation technique? When Where and when a scoring rubric is used does not depend on the grade level or subject, but rather on the purpose of the assessment. There are many instances where it is used such as in evaluating group activities, extended projects and oral presentations. 2 benefits of scoring rubrics in evaluation: First, they support the examination of the extent to which the specified criteria have been reached. Second, they provide feedback to students concerning how to improve their performances. General versus Task-Specific In developing scoring rubrics, bear in mind that it can be used to assess or evaluate specific tasks or general or broad category of tasks. Example To assess the student's oral communication skills. A may be developed and used to evaluate each of the oral presentations given by that student. general scoring rubric In contrast, if the main purpose of the oral presentation is to determine the students' knowledge of the facts surrounding the EDSA I revolution, then a would be necessary to evaluate the student's knowledge of these events. specific scoring rubric Process of Developing Scoring Rubrics Identification of the qualities and attributes for the top level of performance that the teacher wishes to observe in the students' outputs Whether a holistic or an analytical rubric Separate descriptive scoring schemes for each criterion (Analytic) Single descriptive scoring scheme (Holistic) Identification and definition of the criteria for lowest level of performance Presentation by SittiJhoe Reference: Advanced Methods in Educational Assessment and Evaluation
(Assessment of Learning 2)