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Gross National Happiness in Bhutan
Transcript of Gross National Happiness in Bhutan
in Bhutan BHUTAN GROSS NATIONAL
HAPPINESS MEASURING GNH CONCLUSION Official Name: Kingdom of Bhutan Term used to define an indicator that measures quality of life or social progress in more holistic and psychological terms than only the economic indicator of gross domestic product (GDP) PILOT STUDY 1. Denmark
8. Bhutan GEOGRAPHY
-Landlocked state in South Asia located at the eastern end of the Himalayas
-Borders China and India
-Population: 742, 737 HISTORY/GOVERNMENT CLIMATE -Absolute Monarchy-->Constitutional Monarchy
1907 - Wangchuck Dynasty established
1999 - Ban on television and Internet lifted
2007 - Constitutional Monarchy established CULTURE -South: subtropical plains
-North: sub-alpine Himalayan heights
-Preservation of Bhutan
tradition and culture HISTORY -Coined in 1972 by the king of Bhutan -A six to seven hour interview conducted by the CBS between October 2006 and January 2007
-According to this pilot survey, more than 68% of the Bhutanese are very happy with their lives
-Results: Bhutanese people rate income, family, health, spirituality, and good governance as their most urgent requirements to be happy
-Center for Bhutan Studies (CBS) Nine Indicators: living standards, education, psychological well-being, health, time use & balance, cultural vitality & diversity, good governance, community vitality, & ecological diversity & resilience -This phrase signaled his commitment to building an economy that would serve Bhutan's unique culture based on Buddhist spiritual values FOUR PILLARS of GNH 1. Promotion of Sustainable and Equal Socio-Economic Development 2. Preservation and Promotion of Cultural Values 3. Conservation of the Natural Environment 4. Establishment of Good Governance embody national and local values, aesthetics, and spiritual traditions GNH INDEX -Built from data drawn from periodic surveys which are representative by gender, district, age, rural-urban residence, income, etc.
-33 GNH indicators -124 variables: weighted differently WHAT DEFINES HAPPINESS? The GNH Index Uses 2 Thresholds HAPPINESS
THRESHOLDS how much is enough to be happy? Three Cut-Offs: 50%, 66%, 77% <50%: unhappy (10.4% of the population)
50-65%: narrowly happy (48.7% of the population)
66-76%: extensively happy (32.6% of the population)
>77%: deeply happy (8.3% of the population) Middle Happiness Cut-Off: 66%
2. Measurement Error
3. Freedom of Choice how many domains or in what percentage of the indicators must a person achieve sufficiency in order to be understood as happy? WORKS CITED FORMULA GNH Index is created from:
1. Headcount ratio: % of people who are happy
2. Breadth: % of domains in which people who unhappy and narrowly happy (not-yet-happy groups) enjoy sufficiency -Happiest country in Asia
-8th happiest country in the world -However...low life expectancy, low literacy rate, low GDP Kamanev, Marina. (2006). “The World’s Happiest Countries.” Businessweek.com. http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-10-11/rating-countries-for-the- happiness-factorbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice. Ura, Karma, Alkire, Sabina, & Zangmo, Tshoki. (2011). "GNH and GNH Index." The Centre for Bhutan Studies, 1-48. GNH=1-(headcount-breadth) Bates, Winton. (2009). Gross National Happiness. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 23(2), 1-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8411.2009.01235.x