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By Fifi, Paxton, and Eliza

Eliza Amber

on 10 June 2013

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Transcript of Tigers

Sources: http://www.wildlywise.com/tiger_specs.htm http://www.second-opinions.co.uk/carn_herb_comparison.html#.UaQGqSv71b4 http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/basics/anatomy.html Tigers Physiology and Anatomy By Fifi, Eliza, & Paxton Climate and habitat Physiology and Anatomy Comparison of Tigers Basic information for Tigers Kingdom: Phylum: Conservation status: Endangered Head and body, 5 to 6 ft (1.5 to 1.8 m); tail, 2 to 3 ft (0.6 to 0.9 m) 240 to 500 lbs (109 to 227 kg) Bone structure The information is from different species of tigers Other species
of tigers have
very similar
features but
there are little differences Comparison of Tigers and Other Large Felines Tigers Vs. Lions Tigers Lions Specifications Average males weigh 330-550 pounds. Average females weighs 250-350 pounds The tiger has 30 vertebrates which extends all the way to the tip of the tail. This allows the tiger to be flexible and balance on rough terrain. Have the biggest brain out of all big cats except for the tigers. Their brain is 25% larger than a lions Average lifespan is 12 years for males (In the wild). Muscle Structure Average lifespan for females 15-16 years (in the wild.) Skin & Fur: Size: Can run to 30 to 40 miles per hour Can run up to 37 miles per hour Climate and Habitat The Four Vitals: -Territory -Prey -Water -Cover What a tiger needs to survive Tiger Territory Weight: Full-grown tigers consume about 3,000kg of meat a year and need an abundant source of prey. Size relative to a 6-ft (2-m) man: Body length 2.2-3 meters Tail length 700-1,000 mm Live in rich grasslands of East Africa to sands of Kalahari desert, south Sahara to South Africa. (Excluding the Congo rainforest India's Gir forest.) Tiger Vs. Leopard Tigers Leopard Diet The majority of the tiger's anatomy consists of muscle mass as the skeleton itself is relatively small and fragile. Jaw Physiology Tigers are fiercely protective of their space and work hard to maintain control in it. Tigers, as well as all animals need water to survive. They often live near rivers or other bodies of water Tigers can not run as fast or far as some other cats and instead use the cover of the forest to stalk their prey. Climate: Males weigh between 82-200 pounds (Females slightly smaller) Can live up to 20 years 1.5 to 2.6 feet tall at the shoulder. Tigers adapt quickly and with proper resources can survive in almost any climate. These include: -Hot rainforests -Oak forests -Northern spruce forests 3-6 feet long, with a tail that's 2-3.5 feet long -Grassland -Marshes -Swamps Mainly eat gazelle, impala, deer, and wildebeast. On occasion they may hunt monkeys, birds, and rodents. Tigers prefer to have a readily available water source and good cover for hunting. Protecting Their Territory Found throughout most of Africa and Asia from the middle east to the Soviet Union, Korea, China, India, and Malaysia. Finding Prey Found in a variety of Habitats including Forest, mountains, grasslands, and deserts. Very active at night. During the day, they rest in thick brush or trees. can run over 36 mph, Leap over 20 ft., Jump over 10 ft. Very agile and good swimmers. Siberian tigers weigh from 400-675 lbs. Can live up to 10-15 years. height of 3-3.5 feet tall at shoulders. Head and Body length 4.6-9.2 feet
with a tail length of 2-3 feet. Mainly eats ambar deer, wild pigs, and antelope Also known to hunt sloth bears, dogs, leopards, crocodiles, and Pythons. As well as monkeys and hares. Only found in South and southeast Asia, China and the Russian far East. Found in a variety of habitats including tropical forests, evergreen forests, woodlands, and Mangrove swamps to grassland, savannah, and rocky country. Very active at night and are ambush predators that rely on the camouflage their stripes provide. - Usually a male tiger's territory includes the territory of about five females. - Tigers mark their territory by walking the perimeter and making an invisible barrier. Can run up to 37 mph - Some tigers do not have a territory, these tigers are called "transients." Tigers use their body weight to knock the prey to the ground and kills with a bite to the neck. They are also very good swimmers and known to kill prey while swimming. - Transients move from place to place. If a tiger that had a territory dies, a transient will take it's territory. Tigers Lynx Tiger Vs. Lynx Weighs 10-23 pounds. Height around 2 feet. Length 2.5-3 feet. Lynx can only survive where there are adequate snowshoe hare populations. Also known to eat mice, voles, grouse, ptarmigan and red squirrel. Known to occur only in Maine, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and Washington. They require different forest types, including young forests with thick vegetation for hunting snowshoe hares and older forests with good covers for their dens. More active at night then day. Siberian tigers weigh 400-675 pounds Height 3-3.5 at shoulders Head and Body length 4.6-9.2 feet
(2-3 foot tail.) Mainly Eat Ambar deer, wild pigs, water buffalo, and antelope. Tigers are able to stay out in cold weather, because their skin is able to handle the temperature in any kind of weather. Variations: Tigers occupy habitats from tropical forests, evergreen forests, woodlands and mangrove swamps to grasslands, savannahs, and rocky country. Black/Blue tigers: "Black Tigers" have a black (or very dark grey) base coat with light tan or grey stripes. "Blue Tigers" have a blue-grey base coat with charcoal stripes. This coloration could be caused by a recessive gene or inbreeding. The existence of black tigers without stripes has been reported but not substantiated. Black/blue tigers are thought to be extinct today. White tigers have dark brown or reddish brown stripes on a white background color, and some are wholly white. The White Tiger is neither a subspecies in its own right, nor an albino form of a ‘normal’ tiger. Rather, it is simply a rare form of Bengal Tiger that possesses a specific gene, giving it a lighter appearance. Found in South and Southeast Asia, China, and the Russian far east. Their coat is yellow to light orange, and the stripes range from dark brown to black; the belly is white, and the tail is white with black rings. Tigers essentially live solid lives,, except during mating season and when females bear young. Golden tigers is characterized by its gorgeous fawn-color (or pale gold) fur with its light-orange stripes and pale (sometimes white) belly and legs. The fur is thicker and softer than other tigers’ fur, giving it a distinctly luxurious look and feel.The Golden Tabby Tiger is, to the best of modern knowledge, only in existence in captivity today. Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Animalia Siberian tigers weigh between 400-675 Panthera Felidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Lifespan is 10-15 years Body length 4.6-9.2 feet Tail length 2-3 feet Height 3-3.5 feet Likes a variety of habitats from tropical forest, woodlands, and mangrove swamps to grasslands, savannah, and rocky country. Only found in South and Southeast Asia, China, and the Russian Far east. Tigris corbetti: : Bengal tiger Siberian Tiger Vs. Bengal Tiger Indochinese tiger Jacksoni: Malayan tiger Sumatrae: Sumatran tiger Altaica: Siberian tiger Amoyensis: South China tiger Caspian tiger Bali tiger Javan tiger † Virgata: † Balica: † Sondaica: -Tigers have about one large kill a week. In order to maintain a food source as large as this tigers need what is called a "food bank." This consists of about 500 animals that continue to reproduce. -Tigers mostly prey on large species of deer, wild pigs and wild cattle. -Occasionally, if hungry, tigers will settle for smaller animals, such as porcupines. -Daring tigers have been known to go after elephant or rhino calves. -When hunting, tigers rely on their keen eyesight and hearing. Because they can not run like other cats. -Less than 100 years ago, the tigers ranged from eastern Turkey to the far east of Russia. Stretching up to Siberia and down into Bali. - Now, tigers live only in some parts of India, Nepal, China, Russia, Indonesia and the Malaysian peninsula. -The tigers habitat has been reduced to 7% of the size it once was. - Today, there are only about 3,200 tigers left. It is predicted that if the population continues to decrease at this rate, tigers will be extinct in just a few decades. Bengal Tiger Male tigers can reach up to 110-120 in. Females can reach up to 94-104 in. Males weigh 390-570 pounds Females weigh 220-400 pounds Can be found in alluvial grasslands, Rainforest of both the tropical and subtropical kind, mangroves, deciduous forests, and scrub forests. Live in India Average lifespan 8-10 years Most common tiger and number about half of all wild tigers. Over many centuries they have become an important part of Indian tradition and lore. Siberian Tiger Weigh around 660 pounds They have a size of 10.75
pounds They live primarily in
Russia's birch forest They also exist in
China and North Korea There are an estimated
400-500 left Siberian tigers are
the worlds largest cat Their forelegs have a solid bone running through them, which reinforces them and makes them able to support a massive amount of muscle tissue. This means that they are as strong as possible, which is important as the tiger uses these forelimbs to grab and hold onto its struggling prey, even when the hunter is running at high speeds. The longer hind legs of the tiger enable it to jump powerfully, covering up to 10 meters in a single leap. The collarbone of the tiger is particularly small in comparison to the rest of the skeleton and in comparison to other endoskeletal mammals. This enables it to achieve longer strides without resistance. The skull not only protects the eyeballs and the brain, but it is also built in a way that allows the tiger to have maximum strength in its jaw, which is essential considering its hunting methods and its carnivorous diet. The skull is short and rounded, investing all of the support and power into the teeth and jaws. LEGS, FEET & CLAWS Tigers are able to stay out in cold weather, because their skin is able to handle the temperature in any kind of weather. Malayan Tiger Vs. Indochinese Tiger Malayan Tiger Can only be found around the
Malayan Peninsula Males are around 8.5 feet long Female are around
7 feet 10 inches in length. Weigh between 104-284 pounds They eat sun bear, wild boars,
and deer. Due to a smaller habitat
and lack of food, some have taken
to eating livestock. Estimated 493-1,480
left in the wild As hunters, tigers need to have great hearing so that they are able to detect potential prey in the bushes and grasses around them. Many times, this foliage is dense, concealing the animal visually. Therefore, the tiger’s hearing must be fine-tuned in order not to miss an important opportunity to get food. This is considered to be the best of the tiger's senses. Hearing Sight Smell Because they eat livestock
farmers want to kill them in an
effort to preserve their
investment in ranching Indochinese Tiger The eyesight of the tiger is exceptionally good, particularly at night. The eye has been designed to see very well in the dark. In normal daylight, the tiger sees about as well as we do, but without the detail that we can enjoy. At night, though, their vision is about six times better than that of a human being. They can also judge distances, which is essential to their success in hunting, since they need to pounce on unsuspecting prey with accuracy and agility. Can be found in the areas of Vietnam, Thailand, China, Laos, and Cambodia Known to grow 8-10 feet in length Males weigh around 420 pounds Tigers use this helpful sense when they are interacting with other tigers, and not so much in hunting. Tigers use personal scents to mark their territory. Other tigers will be eager to smell the scent of their peers. Taste Although the sense of taste in a tiger is not that sophisticated, it has been established that they are probably able to taste acidic as well as sweet flavors. Tigers (and other cats in general) have only a fraction of the number of taste buds that we, as human beings, enjoy. This lack of complex tasting mechanisms accounts for the fact that tigers do not refuse to eat food that has become rotten. Tigers use their well-developed sense of touch for several purposes. These include rubbing against one another (as in courting couples or family members) and for mothers to maintain personal contact with their cubs. However, using their very sensitive whiskers is another extremely important facet of their tactile sensory perception. These assist in navigation in the dark and detecting danger. When attacking their prey, the whiskers help the tiger to sense where the best place to bite the victim would be for an effective, quick kill. Touch Females weigh around 250 pounds They eat deer, pigs, serow, and bovids. Because their food source are now limited they have to eat smaller prey such as badgers and porcupines. The bones of the tiger's front legs are strong and dense to support the large musculature needed to take down large prey. The hind legs of the tiger are longer than their front legs. This characteristic enables them to leap forward distances up to 10 meters (32.5 ft) Tigers have large padded feet that enable them to silently stalk prey in the Asian jungles. The bones in each of the tiger's feet are tightly connected by ligaments enabling them to buffer the impact of landing from running, pouncing and leaping. Senses The claws of the tiger are up to 10 centimeters (4 in) in length and are used to grasp and hold onto prey. Each paw has four of these claws and one specialized claw called a dewclaw. A dewclaw is located farther back on the foot and thereby does not touch the ground when walking. Dewclaws function similarly
to thumbs in that they are used for grasping prey and aid in climbing. Haven't been seen in china since 207 because a man killed the last one and ate it. Approximately 60 of these tigers are living in captivity in zoo's around the world Tiger claws are retractable in that ligaments hold them in a protective skin sheath when their not being used. The ligaments are in a relaxed position when the claws are retracted thereby expending no musculature effort.
Tigers retract their claws to ensure that they remain sharp for
times when they are needed and to tread silently up to
unsuspecting prey. The jaws cannot move from side to side, but only up and down, which adds to
the strength of the downwards clamping. Tigers have 30 teeth, which is considerably less than many other mammals, including human beings. However, these teeth are specialized; designed specifically for hunting, clamping and tearing at the meaty prey of the animal. The canine teeth of the tiger are larger than those of any of the other wild cats, reaching lengths of almost 10 centimeters. These teeth are very sensitive, filled with neural receptors and enabling the tiger to kill its prey quickly and effectively. This reduces the suffering of the prey as well as the amount of energy that the tiger needs to invest in each kill. Then, the back teeth (carnassials) slice the meat off of the carcass of the catch. This is a diagram of a COUGAR's muscles, however, the muscle structure of a tiger is very similar. The favored prey of tigers is various species of deer and the succulent wild boar. The availability of prey does, of course, depend on the specific area in which the tiger resides and what is most prolific there. In an area that is not well populated by animals, tigers may have to resort to eating rodents, small birds, insects, and so on. However, the most common diet options for tigers include sambar, chital (also known as the Spotted Deer or Axis Deer), sika deer, nilgai, buffalo, gaur (a bovine species), monkeys, badgers, porcupines, and even fish, frogs, crabs, monitor lizards, and snakes. When available and vulnerable, a tiger will not shy away from attacking a baby elephants or baby rhino. Still, the tiger is not afraid of it prey, and will not discriminate between healthy adult animals or weak, sickly ones. Sambar nilgai Chital
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