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Transcript of Castles
Castle defence The lord was the overall commander of the castle The constable was in charge of the castle when the lord was away. He was often one of the lord's relatives The priest was in charge of all religion. He managed the chapel and was often well-educated. A blacksmith was in supposed to make weapons and metalwork. There were many people who lived in a castle They were divided into: people who fought, people who worked (or served) or people who prayed. A falconer took care of the birds A groom took care of the horses A ordinary soldier served as a guard or a bodyguard A mummer was a travelling actor A jester was in charge of entertaining the guests during a feast.
Knight Squire A page serving the lord Being a knight Page A page was a young boy who was preparing to be a knight A page was sent to feasts to learn how to serve nobles A page was used to carry messages, assist the lord etc. He learnt the essentials of life, like fighting and hunting When a boy was 7, he was sent to the castle to learn how to be a knight If a page was knightly enough, he became a squire at the age of fourteen. A squire was the knight's personal servent. In battle, a squire would carry all the spare bits and pieces a knight would need. He would also help the knight dress up for battle. A squire learnt how to ride a war horse. He was allowed a sword and a sheild. In the end he was knighted. Being knighted Being knighted is the most important part of any nobleman's life First, a squire would pray all night Secondly, he would take a nice, warm bath Thirdly, he would wear special clothes and put on his armour A squire would kneel by his lord and his lord would touch him with his sword. His lord would say: "I dub thee sir knight" The new knight would recieve his weapons Finally, he was knighted A knight was a nobleman who fought in the army for 40 days a year A knight was often of high social status and was a elite soilder A knight on horseback The code of chivalry said that knights had to be brave and fearless but also kind, generous, loyal and religious Outer battlements Inner battlements Hoards and Machicolations A Moat would fill up to keep the enemy at a distance. Barbican There were narrow slits for archers to shoot out of-easy to shoot out but hard to shoot in. Portcullis Castles were defended by number of ways Staircases wound up on the right, meaning that any right-handed soilder would have difficulty using his sword. Castles were whitened with lime to dazzle the enemy However, nowerdays most of the lime would have faded away Hoards were wooden platforms built on top of castle walls. They were used to drop stones and boiling oil on top of the attackers Machicolations were stone versions of hoards The drawbridge was a bridge that could be hoisted up so that nobody could enter through the gate. The living conditions depended if you were a lord or a peasent If you were a lord, then you would be living in the highest standards of that time. that meant hot water baths and towels- even though the toilets were not so good! If you were a peasent, you would live in what we now call slums. Their houses were dusty and they slept on simple beds and cooked with fire Being a lord Home life If you were a medival lord, you would live in the lord's tower On the top floor, there was a wardrobe. There, the lord and the lady dressed up etc. On the 3rd floor, there was a master bedroom. There, the lord and the lady slept. On the second floor, there was a private living room which was called the solar. There, the family relaxed and rested. On the first floor, there was a private basement. The lord stored all his personal belongings. Peasent A castle The barbican was the section of the inner gatehouse which was shaped like a U. If any enemy managed to reach the barbican, they would be shot at from 3 sides The barbican This is a castle... The portcullis was the metal criss-cross structure that could block battering rams This is the portcullis The lady was the lord's wife The great hall was where the lord and the lady feasted Feasts In the middle ages people ate only what they could find nearby. Peasents ate whatever they could find. If you were a lord then it would be a differnt matter... In medival times, people used bread as a plate. Pork was very common in medival times. Meat was usually smoked or salted to prevent it from spoiling. A typical feast Honey was used instead of sugar. Favorite drinks included wine, mead and ale. The more important people usually sat at the head table, which was higher than the others Salt was very important during medival times One of the first castles were the motte and bailey castles. This type of castle was all over england after the eleventh century, Melars and crenals Melar Crenal Melars were the "lumps" of any wall. Defenders could hide behind them. Bridge keep (motte) Crenals were the "holes" of any castle. defenders could shoot out of the Crenals. Murder holes palisade (fence) Murder holes were holes above the main gate. If a attacker reached the main gate, defenders could drop stones on them. The bailey (mush) Most castles had round towers so archers could shoot in all directions A motte and bailey is made out of wood so it is vulnerable to fire. Motte and bailey castle Concentric castles The end of castles 12th century - 13th century Before 12th century 14th century onward We will be examining this later on Square keep castles How has castle defence changed? Castles came out of fashion when cannons were developed. Later on, comfort was the most essential thing as england got less violent. Some castles eventually developed into fortified palaces. The cannon was developed later in the middle ages. And at that time, the castles were out of fashion. Square keep castles were built with stone, meaning they were invulnerable to fire. A square keep castle. Notice the fact that they did not have additional walls Square keep castles, however needed more defences. Thus, castle builders invented a new type of castle... Concentic castles were rin ged by a number of defensive walls. If a wall fell to the enemy, The defenders would just reatreat to the next defensive wall. 13th century-14th century Here are the key parts to any castle
We will see understand what they are in a moment.
This is a concentric castle. We will learn more castles later. A castle is... Keep Moat Gatehouse and drawbridge Defensive walls The Mangonel is used. It is a catapult powered by ropes. Sometimes, A trebuchet was used. It was a catapult managed by a giant counterweight. The belfry was pushed against the wall, and the attackers advanced The battering ram was pushed against the gate The invaders filled the moat up so they could cross it. For example... Feasts were usually very noisy and extravegent, even though the table mannerss weren't as good as today. Sometimes, they lasted 10 hours! The amount of people living in a castle could fill a small village! To prevent invaders from sealing the castle's food supply, The food and supplies were normally smuggled through a small tunnel underground. How has the attacking style changed? Later in the middle ages, attacks with fire fell out of fashion, because stone castles are resistant to fire. Pickaxes were used against the first stone keeps, having thin walls. But later, they had to get battering rams to get through the thick stone walls Ladders were becoming more and more useless as defenders could easily spill boiling water or oil to the soldier on the ladder,or fire an arrow at him. That is why the Belfry was invented. Soldiers no longer were by themselves. Catapults helped soldiers take down walls by hurling big pieces of rock, or burning objects. Soldiers later developed a skill at mining, and they would mine until they were under the gatehouse. Then they would set an explosion, shattering the thick stone walls. Why didn't they use these castles later in the medieval times? Because they were to weak to hold against siege's and catapults etc. Because this type of castleis vulnerable to fire Because the invading weapons improved They were first built in France during the 900-100 AD They were ccmmonly used because it could be built within 8 days. It was designed to be hard for people to get in during wartime. It was normally built on top of a hill. The advantage of this is that no one inside the castle could see them making they're attack. But the disadvantage is that no big weapons could be brought underground. DID YOU KNOW? Sometimes, dead cattle, sheep or even plague victims were hurled into the castle! This type of castle is hard to defend A trebuchet What is a belfry? A belfry was a massive tower that was pushed next to the wall. This drawbridge was used so the attackers could climb over the walls THANK YOU FOR WATCHING! A good castle needed to be strong and had to ensure the enemy could not enter it Archers fire 360 degrees These chains lift the bridge up A castle was a fortress that was built in the middle ages. Now thats's it! A Mangonel