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Anthrax Disease

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by

Erin Heard

on 14 October 2012

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Transcript of Anthrax Disease

History Symptoms Cure The Anthrax Disease Appropriate antibiotics (The antibiotics are effective in killing the bacteria, but they do not destroy the deadly toxins that have already been released by the anthrax bacteria). Diagnosis Anthrax, a potentially fatal infection, is a virulent and highly contagious disease. Descriptions of this disease begin in antiquity, with the best ancient account being by the Roman poet Virgil. During the 19th century, anthrax was the infection involved in several important medical developments. It served as the prototype for Koch's postulates regarding the causation of infectious disease. The first vaccine containing attenuated live organisms was Louis Pasteur's veterinary anthrax vaccine. In the 1900s, human inhalation anthrax occurred sporadically in the United States among textile and tanning workers, but the incidence of the illness had declined dramatically. An outbreak of inhalation anthrax occurred in Sverdlovsk near a Soviet military microbiology facility in 1979. This epidemic represented the largest documented outbreak of human inhalation anthrax in history. In October and November 2001, 22 cases of confirmed or suspected inhalation and cutaneous anthrax were reported associated with the intentional release of the organism in the United States. An additional case of cutaneous disease occurred in March of 2002. Contracting the Disease Prognosis Gastrointestinal anthrax This form of anthrax occurs after eating meat contaminated with the bacteria that cause anthrax. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Cutaneous anthrax occurs when spores from the bacteria enter a cut or scrape on the skin.
Skin infection begins as a small, raised bump that might itch Swollen lymph nodes close to the area of the blister.
Fever
Headache
Feeling of Dicomfort Within 1 to 2 days, the bump develops into a fluid-filled blister about 1 cm (0.4 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.) in diameter.
Within 7 to 10 days, the blister usually has a black center of dying tissue (eschar) surrounded by redness and swelling. The blister is usually painless. Ulcers at the base of the tongue or tonsils.
Sore throat.
Loss of appetite.
Vomiting.
Fever. Abdominal pain.
Vomiting of blood.
Bloody diarrhea. Inhalational anthrax Sore throat.
Mild fever.
Muscle aches. Severe difficulty with breathing.
Shock, which can develop rapidly.
Meningitis, which develops frequently. Death can occur within 24 to 36 hours after such complications occur.
Respiratory symptoms may be similar to those of pneumonia. Oropharyngeal anthrax This is the least common form of anthrax.
Fever.
Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
Severe throat pain.
Difficulty swallowing.
Ulcers at the base of the tongue. Anthrax can infect humans in three ways. The most common is infection through the skin, which causes an ugly sore that usually goes away without treatment. Humans and animals can ingest anthrax from carcasses of dead animals that have been contaminated with anthrax. Ingestion of anthrax can cause serious, sometimes fatal disease. The most deadly form is inhalation anthrax. If the spores of anthrax are inhaled, they migrate to lymph glands in the chest where they proliferate, spread, and produce toxins that often cause death. Cutaneous anthrax is usually cured with anthrax treatment. The cutaneous anthrax death rate is 20 percent without antibiotic treatment and less than 1 percent with it.
Death rates for inhalation anthrax are based on incomplete information, the rate is extremely high, approximately 75 percent, even with all possible supportive care including appropriate antibiotics.
For gastrointestinal anthrax, the death rate is estimated to be 25 to 60 percent. The impact of early antibiotic treatment on the anthrax death rate is unknown. Cutaneous anthrax can usually be cured with antibiotics. The cure rate for cutaneous anthrax is 99 percent with treatment. Left untreated, the anthrax cure rate for this type of the disease is still 80 percent.
There have not been enough cases of inhalation anthrax to know the specific cure rate for this type of the disease, although it is thought to be only around 25 percent.
Gastrointestinal anthrax can be cured in 40 to 75 percent of cases. Prevention Public-health measures to prevent contact with infected animals are invaluable. There is a vaccine available for people at high risk (such as veterinarians, laboratory technicians, employees of textile mills processing imported goat hair, and members of the armed forces). The Department of Defense and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are working very hard to prevent a bioterrorist attack and to be prepared to deal with the consequences if one occurs. For anthrax and other infectious diseases, vaccines with greater efficacy and fewer side effects are under development. Currently, most vaccines are given by injection into fat or muscle below the skin. Early studies in experimental animals are showing promise for an oral vaccine for anthrax. Obviously, a pill is easier to take than a shot, and the pill may even be a safer and more effective route of administration. Future of the Disease The disease can be gotten rid of by using antibiotics, but quickly.
Not used for anything else and has not had an outbreak since 1979 Interesting Facts Anthrax is an infection by bacteria transmitted from animals.
Anthrax causes skin, lung, and bowel disease and can be deadly.
Anthrax is diagnosed by cultures from infected tissues.
Anthrax is treated by antibiotics.
Anthrax can be prevented.
Sadly, the greatest threat of anthrax today is through a bioterrorist attack.
Federal, state, and local agencies are working hard to deal with this bioterrorist threat. Interesting Cases A modern concern is use of anthrax as a biologic warfare agent. During the first Gulf War, Iraq reportedly produced 8500 L of anthrax. A total of 150,000 US troops were vaccinated with anthrax toxoid. In the weeks following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, 22 confirmed or suspected cases of anthrax infection were disseminated via the US postal system; the spores mailed in these letters were ultimately traced to a US army medical research institute. Since there have been no cases of naturally occurring inhalational anthrax in the US since 1976, alarm should be raised for the occurrence of even a single infection. The end:) What is anthrax?
Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
What are the types of anthrax infection?
Cutaneous, Inhalation, and Gastrointestinal
What are the case fatality rates for the various forms of anthrax?
Early treatment of cutaneous anthrax is usually curative, and early treatment of all forms is important for recovery.
How can I know my cold or flu is not anthrax?
In previous reports of anthrax cases, early symptoms usually did not include a runny nose, which is typical of the flu and common cold.
Is there a vaccination for anthrax?
A protective vaccine has been developed for anthrax; however, it is primarily given to military personnel.
If patients are suspected of being exposed to anthrax, should they be quarantined or should other family members be tested?
Anthrax is not known to spread from one person to another person. Assessment:
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