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Big Bang

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lionel violet

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of Big Bang

Then, a few planck times later, the nothing expanded to a million x a million x a million x a million of its size and became something.
The Universe is still expanding and cooling. In essence the Big Bang is still happening...
13.7 billion years after the Big Bang
What is "The Big Bang?"
...after the Big Bang
Our Solar system forms
Big Bang
Our sun started to form
...after the Big Bang
The first galaxies formed
Origin of space and time
Occurred about 13.7 billion years ago
Creation of and
Everything is matter
Created in the first instants of the Big Bang
Stars, planets, and water are all relatively early forms of matter
Positive energy
Exact opposite of matter
Created the same time as matter
Negative energy
Is no longer known to exist in our universe
There was nothing... literally
note: neither image portrays antimatter, but both capture the essence of the raging negative energy. On the right is a solar flare and on the left is a digitally composed black hole.
no universe,
no time,
no space,
no matter,
no antimatter,
no gravity,

All that there was was a miniscule bit of nothing that contained more than all the energy that would ever exist.
This was known as THE BIG BANG.
The universe was able to expand faster than the speed of light. Impossible? No. Einstein's famous equation (E=mc^2) states that something cannot travel faster than light, but nothing is not something, so with nothing spurring the birth of the universe it was able to expand faster than the speed of light.
What is a Planck Time?
A planck time is a unit of time measurement used to express very short times in space.
There are more planck times in a second than there have been seconds since the Big Bang, equating to around a billion billion billion billion planck times every second.
First Evidence
Beginning of the 20th century
Scientific community believed in a static, eternal universe
A monumental Discovery
Mt. Wilson Observatory
Made by Edwin Hubble
Galaxies not stagnant
Galaxies moving rapidly away from earth
First evidence of the Big Bang
During observations, Hubble discovered that galaxies twice as distant move twice as fast, three times as distant three times as fast, and so on.
Beginning Comprehension
Energy and the Birth of the Atom
Accessible model
Finding the past
Saying Farewell
Universe expanding
Began as infinitesimal point
Rate of expansion is measured
Rate is used to calculate backwards
Calculation shows
the Big Bang's
start occurred
about 13.7 billion
years ago
Viewing closer to the Big Bang
Looking up at the night sky we see stars that are millions of light years away, meaning that the light is millions of years old.
If you looked far enough away (nearly 14 billion light years) you, theoretically, could see the beginning of time
The Hubble telescope allows far-off deep space to be viewed, at a time much closer to the Big Bang
Universe was smaller than an atom, with all its present energy contained.
- very hot and dense,
- no structure.
The first force to emerge was gravity.
- it did so in perfect amounts.
A shock wave then expanded the universe.
- violently
Matter Began to form.
- as temperatures dropped.
Energy to matter
Einstein's law states that energy can form matter, which can be converted back
The massive shock wave of energy became tiny
subatomic particles
Like nothing we have today
Harsh conditions kept changing matter to energy and back again
Very unstable
Matter and antimatter began an epic battle to determine which would be exterminated.
- (matter won)
Particles bonded together to form atoms.
The Atom is Born
- as the universe cooled
Universe was still very hot and expanding rapidly
Temperatures cooled and particles slowed just enough to stick

In the next 3 minutes Helium and Lithium would form, but it would be nearly 400,000 years before they were visible
First elements were formed.
- Hydrogen
- Helium
- Lithium
The Milky Way... Universe???
A possible unknown trigger caused the sudden explosion that formed time and space, known as The Big Bang.
It took about 380,000 years before the universe cleared up. Because of all the loose electrons it looked like a milky soup for all the time prior to this. Finally, when Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium replaced the loose electrons, the first glimpse of light escaped and raced across the universe.
Picture Grand Central Station in New York as the superheated universe, the rushing commuters as subatomic particles (SPs). The people during rush hour appear random, just like the early SPs. The sheer energy of the Big Bang kept them in a random chaos, but as the universe kept cooling they slowed and became more organized, just like commuters reaching their destinations. Even though the universe remained a hot, violent mess the particles eventually stopped turning pack into energy.
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson
Found a mysterious hum
New Jersey, 1964
Were mapping radio signals across the galaxy
There was a faint background hum everywhere they scanned
At first it was assumed to be a malfunction, perhaps pigeon droppings on the antenna
Hum persisted even after cleaning antenna
It was the moment of creation
The universe is still expanding, but one day it will end. Its mystery may never be fully understood, or perhaps it will. No one truly knows what was before the Big Bang, or what will be after, but if the answer shows itself we will be ready and waiting.
"We are getting close to answering the old age questions: Why are we here? Where did we come from? Does the universe, in fact, have a beginning or an end and if so, what are they like? If we find the answer to that it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason; we would know the mind of God."
- Stephen Hawking
For every 1 billion units of antimatter there were 1 billion and one of matter. Everything in our universe today comes from those one in a billion leftovers.
...after the Big Bang
The first stars created
A.K.A. The supersonic galactic kablooie
Mapping it all
To further investigate the event, NASA launched the
Cosmic Background Explorer
Measured temperatures across the universe
Gave information for the very first map of the early universe
Images called the Face of God, but they were blurry
NASA launched improvement satellite in 2001
Had their first scan within a day
Were able to map the most detailed
temperature scan
of the universe yet
By analyzing, the future of our universe can be predicted
Based on temperature, the amount of matter can be determined
By density one can tell where empty space will exist, and where whole galaxies will be formed
Full transcript