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The State in Modern Europe

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Brendan Ha

on 9 December 2013

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Transcript of The State in Modern Europe

Dutch Republic very successful even without a monarch
Having very little land and being close to sea led to extremely strong navy
Rely heavily on trade
Capital city=a port, show dependence on sea trade
Very similar to England, Possibly influenced by becoming king of England
The State

By Brendan Ha, Lauryn Ko, Maeve Flynn, Abigail Knudson & Joe Veglak

Rise of the New Monarchies
The centralization of government such that the singular monarch has control over church and state
Reformation / Absolutism
French Revolution and Napoleonic revolution
Rise of the democratic movement, revolts and independence, great redistribution of land
most cut off
largest country, most spread out.
harder to advance & be modern
Political Structures
Invasion of Russia (1812)
France vs Russia
stopped Russia's trade with England.
freed Poland from the threat of Russia.
Moscow burnt down.
Napoleon lost over 70,000 soldiers.
War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
Austria, Britain, and the Netherlands vs. Prussia, France, and Spain.
Causes: Territory & Austrian Succession
Outcomes: Austria lost Silesia but Maria Theresa could reign.
Orthodox Christianity
Holy Synod has eleven members of varying class & rank, makes decisions through voting.
Serfdom until 1917

Poland, once called Lithuania- Poland, was more democratic and had a government system that let people more involved.
People were allowed to choose laws.
Government was limited; shows the separation of man in society.
Jagiellvo ruled from 1386-1572 as Kings of Poland.
Ends with Sigismund II Augustus.
Sigismund I, 1506- 1548
Supporter of the Renaissance.
Sigismund II Augustus, 1548-1572
Supporter the Renaissance.
Sigismund III from House of Vasa ruled from 1587-1632.
Romanov ruled from 1815-1918 as Kings of Poland.

Political Structures
Parliamentary Republic starting from 1493.
National Assembly existed from 15th Century- 18th Century.
Approved Laws.
Only nobles and officials allowed.
Majority voting.
Senate of the Republic of Poland, 1453
Consisted of king appointed officials and catholic bishops.
Freedom and rights for land owning people, 1537.
There was serfdom during Sigismund I's reign.
Great Northern War (1700-1721)
Teamed up with Russia and Denmark- Norway against Sweden.
This was the fall of Lith.- Poland Commonwealth.
Austrian Succession War (1740-1748)

Sigismund I and Sigismund II Augustus were patrons of the Renaissance.
Under Sigismund I, Lutheran writings were banned.
Sigismund II Augustus was Catholic, yet let people have religious freedom during the Reformation.
Sigismund III 1587-1632 advocated that Church officials should only be Catholic officials during the Counter Reformation.

Frederick 111 (1440-1493)
Charles V (1530-1556)
Hapsburg - Lorraine:
Joseph 11 (1765-1790)
Leopold 11 (1790-1792)
Francis 11 (1792-1806)
Political Structures

Imperial Diet:
legislative body
-Three classes
Council of Electors
Council of Princes
Council of Imperial Cities
Aulic Council
Imperial Chamber Court (Imperial Reform of 1495)
Imperial Circles: 1500 & 1512
6 circles
regional groupings
each had parliament

Schmalkaldic Wars (1546-1555)
Peace of Augsburg
30 Years War (1618-1648)
German states to separate
Peace of Westphalia
Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)
HRE empire destroyed
German Empire

Roman Catholicism
Lutheranism ( home to Martin Luther) 1555
Calvinism 1648

Even though Prussia was a small country, they were still able to keep up with other countries.
During wars, they proved their strength as they defeated other countries with their smaller army.
Prussia, ruled by only the king, shows that he is the absolute ruler. He shows his authorityto make choices and laws for his country.

Hohenzollern ruled from 1701-1918.
Frederick William the Great, Duke of Prussia, ruled from 1640- 1688.
Cuts feudal ties with Poland in 1657.
Frederick I, King in Prussia, ruled from 1688-1713.
Kingdom is created when HRE starts to support it as both of them share an alliance against Louis XIV.
Frederick William II, King in Prussia, ruled from 1713-1740.
Partition of Poland
Prussia expands in Great Northern War.
Highly involved in military issues.
Frederick II (the Great), King of Prussia, ruled from 1740-1786.
Political Structures
Helped out by HRE.
eliminated torture and capital punishments.
eliminated serfdom on royal property, but nobles were allowed to still keep them.
Frederick William I, King in Prussia stressed the need to pay taxes.
Great Northern War (1700-1721)
Swedish Empire vs. Prussia, Russia, Denmark- Norway, Poland and Britain
Austrian War of Succession (1740-1748)
Teams up with France and the Elector of Bavaria.
Seven Years War (1756-1763)
Battle of Lobositz (Oct 1-14, 1756)- Fredrick II crushes Austria and gains Saxony.
Alliance with England.
1744, teams up with Louis XV.
French Revolutionary War (1792-1802)
first coalition under Fredrick William II
Napoleonic War (1803-1815)
First Coalition (1789-1802), Fourth Coalition (1 year, 1806-1807), Seventh Coalition (1815)
Battle of Waterloo- June 18, Napoleon defeated by coalition armies.
Primary schools.
Specially trained army.
Establishes General War Commissariat(bureaucratic army) of 40,000 soldiers.
Catholicism, Protestantism, allowed Judaism.
Habsburg (basically HRE rulers):
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
Joseph II (1780-1790)
Political Structures
Monarchy: Archduke of Austria, usually Holy Roman Emperor, ruler of Hungary after 1526
Technically not an official state, but the "Habsburg Land"

Mainly Catholic, free worship of Lutheranism: Peace of Augsburg, free worship of Calvinism after Peace of Westphalia, freedom of religion: Patent of Toleration (with HRE)
General Hospital of Vienna by Maria Theresa
Education system (1775): all kids 6-12 must go to school (Prussian based)
Serfdom destroyed by law in 1781
Joseph II expands bureaucratic system, merit: judges and officials get constant salaries
Called themselves stadtholders,
Did not rule nation as monarchs
Well know Rulers
William the Silent
William the Third
Political Structures
Dutch Republic (1581-1795)
Had 7 provinces that governed themselves
States General=Legislative body
Bicameral system
Stadtholder would take over in times of war
Power struggle between Orangists and Republicans
Dutch invaded by France(1795) New gov called Batavian Republic
80 years War (1568-1648)
Fight for independence and ending with the Peace of Westphalia
Navigation Wars (1652-54),(1665-67),(1672-74),(1780-84)
4 Wars , also called the Anglo-Dutch wars
The Dutch had strong navy in the 17th century
Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678)
France, Sweden, Prince-Bishopric of Münster, Archbishopric of Cologne, and England vs. Dutch Republic, Brandenburg, Spain, and Austria
End with Treaty of Nijmegen
Originally had Freedom of Religion
William of Orange try to unite Protestants (mainly Calvinists and Catholics
Create the Reformed Church
Persecuted Catholics or anyone not on their side
Debated idea of predestination
Have golden age in late 16th century
Dominated world trade in 17th century
1602 Created Dutch East India Company
Amsterdam=oldest institution with modern trading principles
Valois (1422-1598)
Philip VI (1328–1350)
Henry III (1574–1589)
Bourbon (1598-1848)
Louis XVI (1792–1793)
Louis XIV (1643–1715)
Louis XVIII (1755–1824)
Political Structures
Absolute monarchy; democracy in 1789, empire/dictatorship 1803-1815.
Estates-General (1302-1614)- members lacked power.
National Assembly (1789)- the transition between the Estates-General and the Legislative Assembly.
Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)- political debates and radical law making.
National Convention (1792-1795)- legislative and constitutional assembly of France
Napoleon's Code (1804)- French Civil Code.
7 Years’ War (1756-1763)
French vs. England over territory in North/South America. England won French territory.
French Revolution (1787-1789)
Extreme poverty of peasants.
Enlightened ideas spread.
Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)
Battle of Waterloo (1815)
Prussia vs France
The French army had around 69,000 members, Prussia had an army of 67,000.
Louis XVIII restored.
Napoleon exiled.
French Invasion of Russia (1812)
Stop Russia's trade with England.
Freed Poland from the threat of Russia.
Napoleon lost over 70,000 soldiers.
•Catholicism was the “majority religion."
•Metric system
•Schools created by Napoleon.
Charles 1 of Spain controversy: Catholicism vs. Protestantism because of his ties to HRE
Woman ruling

Trastamera (1469-1496)
Ferdinand (1452-1516) & Isabella (1451-1504)
Spanish Hapsburg (1516-1700)
Charles 1 (1516-1556)
Bourbon (1713-now)
Philip V (1700-1724) & (1724-1746)

Political Structures

Cortes - law making body
- can enact any law & amend constitutions
1. Congress of Deputies
2. Senate
Reconquista (1492)
Muslims & Jews expelled from Spain
Grenada War (1482-1792)
Ferdinand & Isabella
Territory of Granada (Muslim)
Catalan Revolt (1640-1659)
over usage of resources
revolt crushed

Religion: Catholicism
clash with Jews & Protestants (Reconquista)
based on monastic values & teachings
Religion was a tool for the monarchs
The English Civil war follows the steps of a revolution, like the French Revolution, also showed that monarchy happens w/ power
The actions and creations of the English inspired others in foreign lands: American revoltion, French Revolution, industry
Isolation and dependence on navy led to the unstoppable naval force
Even when separated, England had a large influence on the Continent and globally
Always a leader in events: revolutions, constitutions, industry
Union of Great Britain/United Kingdom gives nationalism and more power
Tudors (1485-1603)
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Stuarts (1603-1714)
James I(1603-1625)
Hannover (1714-1901)
George III(1760-1820)
Political Structures
Monarchy -> Constitutional Monarchy in 1689; Glorious Revolution: bloodless change of monarch

Legislature: Parliament (of England/Great Britain/United Kingdom); House of Lords/ House of Commons; Headed by Prime Minister

Judicial system: Courts
War of the Roses
(1455-85): Tudor dynasty in power
Spanish Armada
(1588): Demolished fleet
English Civil War
(1642-51): Charles I angers Parliament, causing separation and the English Interregnum (1649-60)
Austrian War of Succession
(1742-8): in the Indian/American Theatre vs France
Seven Years War
(1756-63): different allies, still vs France in India/America: won land/dominance in both
Napoleonic Wars
(1803-15): Naval superpower: member of coalitions, was blockaded; ultimately won
Church of England (Anglicanism): official religion (Henry VIII)
Book of Common Prayer (1559)
King James Bible (1611)
Declaration of Indulgence: can't make laws against Catholics
English Bill of Rights
Government controls colonies like British America and India and puts heavy taxes.
Assists industrialization through private property law
The scientific revolution and enlightenment brought new political philosophies.
The Reformation put emphasis on controlling the religion in the country and coincided with the era of Absolutism
Fun Facts
1. In 1598 Queen Elizabeth ordered this vegetable from the New World to serve at a banquet. The cooks cooked it incorrectly and sickened everyone. She later banned this vegetable for 100 years. What is it?

2. This sport was invented in Britain in 1755.

3. On this day in 1594, this Swedish ruler was born.

4. In 1565, this Medici Pope, famous for presiding over the last session of the Council of Trent, died on this day.

As the influence of the HRE fell, the power of Austria increased
Became empire soon after HRE dissolves (Habsburg fully on Austria)
Enlightenment leads to reforms, but power of monarchs not sacrificed
Major power house of Continent b/c geography and relations
Changing alliances to battle Prussia, singular rivalry
Defense vs Ottomans: 1683
War of Austrian Succession
7 Years War (alliances switched)
French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic wars
Center of the Continent
Originally given power because of the church
Home of Martin Luther
Woman Ruling
Rurik: (862-1598)
Romanov: (1613-1918)
Ivan IV (1533-1547)
Peter The Great (1682-1696)
Catherine The Great (1762-796)

Senate was lawmaking body, but in 1763 Catherine the Great made it law enforcement.

oppressive gov'ts controlled almost constantly
people eventually got rights and equality
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