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Tiana Wilson

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of Cotton

Tiana Wilson How Humans have used cotton Grows on 2.4% of the worlds arable land
73% of land is irrigated
Destroys soil without the use of crop rotation
Unsustainable land use Land usage “Cotton: the water wasting crop”
One of the thirstiest crops in the world
2,720 Litres = one tshirt
11,000 to 20,000 litres = one pair of jeans
Mismanaged water use, irrigation, and runoff Water usage Trasngenic cotton
Now used worldwide
Little evidence that it uses less water and chemicals
Has a shorter germination time, growing time, and higher yield
Australia = 1689 kilos/hectare
India = around 320 kilos/ hectare Genetically modified cotton
Seed or cuttings
Several weeks = Flower. Self pollinating or pollinated by bees
6 months or more to mature Planting Needs warmth – subtropical, tropical, but has now been grown in temperate regions
Susceptible to frost
High amount of moisture - rainfall or irrigation
Lots of sunshine
Well draining soil Cultivation The industrial revolution - first
large scale agricultural uses
Eli Whitney – 1793 invented the cotton gin
Made cotton into a profitable crop Agriculture -Luxury item exported from India
-New world cotton was used locally
-Misconception: Egyptians did not use cotton History Order Malvales
Family Malvaceae
Subfamily Malvoideae
Genus Gossypium
Species hirsutum Plant taxonomy Cash crop
20 million tonnes produced annually
- 50% of fibres to make clothes and textiles –
the most widesread natural fibre used
Priced based on fibre length and flexibility/durability economics Use $2 billion US a year
Uses more insecticides and pesticides than any other crop
Boll weevil and Cotton root rot
Water contamination – destruction of aquatic ecosystems and human health impacts Chemical usage Old world cotton: Originated in
First cultivated 7,000 years ago

New world cotton: Originated in
Tehuacan Valley, Mexico
First cultivated 6,000 years ago origin 91% Cellulose
8% water – altough it can reach up to 27%
Remaining 1% is pectins, waxes, and salts Fibre components Perennial
Dicot – flowering plant
Can be a shrub or tree
Palmate, alternate leaves
Some species are diploid, others are
Fibres grows in the capsule, or boll, and aid in wind dispersal Plant Characteristics Hollyhock Hibiscus Kokia Fabric – tshirts, denim, corduroy, flannel
First aid materials - Cotton balls, swabs
Cottonseed oil
Animal feed
Organic fertilizer Uses Herbaceum – Levant cotton Hirsutum – Upland cotton Arboreum – Tree cotton Barbadense – Creole cotton Species Cotton Replacement of wool
Fashion statement
High demand in England Why switch to cotton? Images References http://www.ejfoundation.org/cotton/white-gold-video Cuts water and pesicide use in half

Teaches better farming practices

Raises money for agricultural equipment

Supported by popular clothing brands Better cotton initiative In developing countries

With no agricultural equipment available cotton fibres have to be picked by hand

Children are ideal for this work Today - Child labour - Using slaves a plantation owner could maintain hundreds of acres
- The richest men in the states were cotton farmers
- 80,000 slaves from west Africa
- At one point half the population of the american south was slaves
- Cotton: King of the South Slavery “The fibre that changed the world”
Started large trade routes
Large scale cotton farms on British colonies
Staple of the East India Tradng Company Trade The cotton and specifically the cotton gin is seen as one of the major contributors of the civil war

Cotton farming was still done after the war, but with paid labour The American Civil War Cultural Impacts So why do we use cotton? Biology Use of Cotton in the Past Subfamily
Malvoideae: Agriculture Today Should we use cotton? Questions? Baffes, John"The "Cotton Problem"." The World Bank Research Observer , Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring 2005), pp. 109-144

Farnie, Douglas and David Jeremy. "The Fibre that Changed the World: The Cotton Industry in International Perspective." (Oxford University Press: 2004)

Lemire, Beverly. "Cotton." (Oxford University Press: 2011)

Olmsted, Frederick Law. "The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller's Observations On Cotton And Slavery In The American Slave States, 1853-1861." (Da Capo Press, 1996.)

Rea, H. E. "Asexual reproduction of cotton." Journal of Heredity 19, no. 8 (1928): 357-358.

Stewart, James. "Fiber Initiation on the Cotton Ovule (Gossypium Hirsutum)."American Journal of Botany Vol. 62, No. 7 (Aug., 1975), pp. 723-730

Weatherley, P. E. "STUDIES IN THE WATER RELATIONS OF THE COTTON PLANT." New Phytologist 50, no. 1 (2006): 36-51.




http://wwf.panda.org/ http://www.brecorder.com/markets/commodities/europe/
Video: http://www.ejfoundation.org/cotton/white-gold-video Harvesting Processing
Full transcript