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2/28 -- The Bloody Path to War

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Liz Skilton

on 17 September 2018

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Transcript of 2/28 -- The Bloody Path to War

Louisiana History
The Bloody Path To War
3. The Growth of Sectionalism
Post War of 1812 (1830s-40s):
Post 1845
Rise of Republican Party

Rise of Know-Nothing Party
Anti-Catholic, Anti-Immigrant, attracts former Whigs
Dedicated To Promoting Free States
Democrats -- Predominantly Southern
4. The 1860 Election: To Secede Or Not To Secede?
1. Louisiana Talks A Big Game
Republican Winner!
2. To Defend Our Honor
Secession was part of discussion, just a matter of when
Immediate Secessionists
Wanted Louisiana to secede immediately and act as its own sovereign state
Wanted to cooperate with other Southern states to demand changes from Union. Maybe prevent secession or use it as last resource.
3. A Decision Of Great Importance
December 1860 -- Governor Thomas O. Monroe gives fiery speech at Legislature urging secession

January 1861 -- Vote on delegates to convention on secession

Results: 80 "Immediate Secessionists"
44 "Cooperationists"
6 "Undeclared"
January 26, 1861:
Louisiana Secedes from the Union
The Civil War in Louisiana
1. War Comes To Louisiana Quickly
LA Significance on MS River Yet Again Important
3. A Win For the South!
4. A Surge To Control the MS
Louisiana At The End of the War
Emancipation Proclamation & the Question of Freed Men
Landscape Destruction -- Over 500 Battles fought in LA -- Crops, Levees, Roads, & Railways
Loss of Life: 25% of Eligible Male Pop. Dead; 50,000 LA serve - only 36,000 come home

Many exempt from service
- 20 slave rule
$500 Mil. Lost in Property
Gordon, An Escaped Slave, July 4, 1863, Harper's Bazaar
--Used to increase anger in North

--Runaway who had eluded capture (80 mi chase by dogs to Baton Rouge)

--Stories of him fighting bravely in May at Port Hudson reignite interest
Sectionalism Splits Louisiana Politics Even More!
5. The War Over Honor
Jackson rises to political power (& eventual Presidency) -- sides develop for Pro-Jackson & Anti-Jackson
Jacksonian Democrats
The Whigs
Push for creation of a new state Constitution by 1845
with universal suffrage!
The New Constitution (1845):
Adding Things As Need Arose
-Tenure for justices of LA Supreme Court, state debt ceiling, railroad development $$

-Creation of a public school system

-Creation of Lieutenant Governor Office (after one governor run over by horse & carriage)

-Moves capitol to Baton Rouge
& builds building (--> Mark Twain refers to building as "Bastard Gothic style")

-Abolished all property & tax-paying qualifications for voting
-Universal adult white male suffrage
-2 Year residency requirement

Slaves do not count
Sugar planters/New Orleanians
Cotton planters/Northern & Western Louisiana
Industry & Population Growth
Population Growth
Governmental Concern
Governmental Concern
Population Growth & Governmental Concern
Very few can vote & run for election
Intimidation at the voting booths
Louisianans FINALLY used to Democratic system, BUT:
Many left out of population counts -- slaves, immigrants, newcomers
Jacksonian Democrats most upset by:
If slaves do not count, how is the slave system represented?
A Concern Over Slavery....
1852 Constitution Additions
-12 month residency requirement, otherwise voters needed to be free white men of 21 or older

-Population of slaves counted 1:1 ratio
-KEY: not even 3/5 followed elsewhere in US
Population Growth & Governmental Concern
The State in Crisis
Midterm exam

, March 7

12 Years A Slave Paper Due
& Discussion Day 1

Antebellum Louisiana

1. Population Changes

2. Shifting Ideologies Regarding Slavery

3. Growth of Sectionalism in LA

4. The 1860 Election Fallout: To Secede or not to Secede

5. The War of Southern Honor

1815 - 1861
focus today!
Prior to the Civil War
Discussion Question:
What was life like in Louisiana for:
Native Americans
French settlers
Spanish settlers
American (Anglo/English-speaking) settlers
Free People of Color
Review everyday lives, economic concerns, political power, known problems and stereotypes, and key people who represent the group.
Come up with a thesis statement about these people to present to the class. Be creative!
At Statehood (1812-1815)
Constitutional Convention
Due To This:
51% of LA Population Could Not Vote
& Only 20% Actually Ever Did
Adopt KY Constitution with minimal changes

Those in power stay in power

1. Had to have $5,000
2. Had to be a LA resident for 6 years
3. Had to own significant property in Louisiana

Just to vote & be elected..
Agree to rule in American style
Post War of 1812 - 1830s
Population Statistics:

1812 -- 80,000 people
35,000 slaves

1860 -- 700,000 people
331,000 slaves
2. New Orleans Does Not Fall Easily:
General Benjamin Butler's Reign

Unruly LA Behavior
54% favored this
46% favored this
Declares itself
The Republic of Louisiana
; joins with 6 other Southern states to form Confederate States of America in February 1861
General Order No. 28 -- The Women's Order
Main Issue: Slavery
Area of Concern
Addition Made
Addition Made
Area of Concern
Today's Schedule:

1-1:05 - Intro
1:05-1:10 - Discussion Question Overview
1:10-1:25 - Discussion break-up
1:25-1:40 - Discussion in class
1:40-2:15 - Civil War

Come back to classroom at 1:20
Full transcript