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Elizabethan Era - Crimes, Laws and Punishment

Finished as of May 30/10
by

Mark Taylor

on 3 June 2010

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Transcript of Elizabethan Era - Crimes, Laws and Punishment

Elizabethan Era Laws, Crimes, Punishments... ...and Machines of Torture LAWS The Poor Law 1563 Act 1601 Act 1563 - 1601 Three different 'types' of Poor Deserving Poor Deserving Unemployed Undeserving Poor Very Old, Very Young, Sick, Outdoor Relief Clothing, Food and Money Able Bodied, but unable to find work Indoor Relief Orphanages
Work Houses Care Houses
Dishonest Men
Beggars Overseer of the Poor Calculated the Poor Rate Collected poor rate/rent from property owners Dispensed Money, Clothes, and Food Supervised the Parish Poor House Formalized Earlier Provisions To levy a compulsory poor rate on every parish

To provide working materials

Provide work or apprenticeships for children who were orphaned or whose parents were unable to support them

Offer relief to the 'Deserving Poor'

Collect a poor relief rate from property owners

Parents and children were responsible for each other, so poor elderly parents were expected to live with their children
Interesting Fact About the Poor Laws The Acts of Acts of 1552, 1563, 1572, 1576 and 1597 related to provision for the poor on a parish basis while the 1601 Poor Law created a National system to provide for the poor. Sumptuary Laws There are many different types of Punishment.. They include, Beheading Burning The pillory or the Stocks Whipping Branding Ducking Stools The Wheel Boiling in oil Water or Lead Starvation in Public Places Cutting off various parts of the Anatomy The Gossips Bridle or The Brank The Drunkards Cloak

It was terrifying
The Executioner often took several blows before the head of the victim was cut off
Held in public
The head was shown to his own body
Being burnt at the stake was mainly used by Queen Elizabeth's elder sister
Sometimes executionors showed mercy to the victim by placing gunpowder at the bottom

The pillory was very similar to the stocks
The criminal's hands and feet were secured within blocks of wood
The stocks only secured the hands and sometimes head
Intended to publicly humiliate the criminal

It is exactly as it seems
Whippings were often held publicly in order to humiliate the criminals

Was the proccess of marking someone with a hot iron to cause pain Beheading Burning Pillory and the Stocks Whipping Branding
CRIMES PUNISHMENT By: Mark Taylor Jerry Zhang Michael Liu Tony Zhu
Regulated Food
Beverages
Furniture
Jewelery
Clothing
Made sure the Class Structure was kept inline Higher Classes Purple Gold Silver
Silk
Sable Fur
Satin
Gowns
Kirtles
Sleeves
Cowls
Women Men Jerkins Gowns Mantles
Lower Classes Could not wear the higher class' clothing Less Tight
Other Laws Going against the Chuch is considered wrong And Common "Acts" The Females of the house cooked, cleaned and washed Beating your Wife was considered a natural act A Wife cannot kill her Husband
In Public Places the Higher Class was treated better than the Lower Class The Parliament Passed new Laws after a Bill was created by the Queen The Government Monarch Parliament The Wheel Criminal was tied to a wheel and beated with a weapon such as a club Gossips Bridle or The Brank The Punishments for the Crimes are based on 2 classes
Nobility Commoners Different Crimes for the two classes
Cut Purses Begging Poaching Adultery Debtors Forgers Dice Coggers High Treason Blasphemy Sedition
Spying
Murder Witchcraft Alchemy
Stealing If you steal at night you can be sentanced to death but if you steal in the day you get to live. Cutting someone's purse and stealing what is inside (Pickpoketing) Begging was not allowed and if you begged, you would be whipped and if you kept begging, you could ultimately be hanged. To take without the owner's permission. This includes animals such as chicken. They could not “cheat” on their spouse Someone who could not pay their debts were usually thrown in jail or they could be sentenced to jail They could not forge fake things of originals. This was a major crime at the time and was usually made by the poor They are people who cut others into pieces. For example this might be what a butcher might do. The punishment for this is death High treason is treason against the country and not some small place like a town or city An act of cursing god or doing something that is against god To rebel against the government or to rebel in general This is when someone was spying either on the government, the queen or someone else. This can be the person him/herself killing the victim or the person hiring someone to kill the victim Using anything that they thought was related to magic or magical influence. This includes sorcery or practices of a witch A kind of chemistry and philosophy that was practiced during this time. It was mainly for trying to transmute something into gold such as metals and the search for “an elixir of life” or also known as “the philosophers stone” Privy Council Queen Elizabeth I Queen Elizabeth's Advisors Representitaves House of Nobles House of Commoners Elected Automatically in Government Federal Court System Made up the Judicial System 2 Important Courts Great Sessions Courts Assizes Quarter Session Courts The gossips bridle or the brank was a punishment for gossiping. It looked a bit like a cage and had metal pieces that restricted movement of the tongue. The Drunkards Cloak This was a kind of pillory that was used mostly on those disposed to drink. The barrel fit over the entire body, with the head sticking out from the hole in the top. There were two kinds - the enclosed barrel which forced the victim to kneel in his or her own filth, or the open barrel which allowed the victim to roam about town, open to ridicule and scorn. TORTURE Ducking Stools A teetor tooter to tell whether someone was a witch
If the person survived from drowning, then he/she is a witch. If not, then they die. Travel In this era, you were not allowed to travel without a licence. If you were to travel withouta licence, it was a horrible crime and you would be thrown into jail. People who traveled often such as actors or preformers or even buissness men needed to have a licence There were many machines of Torture used in the Elizabethan era which invlude... The Rack The Iron Maiden The Scavenger's Daughter The Collar The Head Crusher The Rack The Rack waswas an apparatus of torture that which was intended to stretch the accused criminal.
The rack stands about a meter above the ground and had a wooden framework. The rack had wooden sticks running across the frame in the manner of a ladder that the accused criminal would be stretched across
their wrists and ankles attached with strong cords to two rollers which moved in opposite directions.
Once the accused criminal was securely fastened to the rack, the questions were asked
Failure to answer the questions would signal two executioners to operate the levers that would turn the rollers in opposite directions.
The rack would stretch the accused criminal’s limbs and if it persisted, it would cause dislocation. The Scavenger's Daughter The Scavenger's Daughter had the opposite effect of the rack.
The rack would stretch and dislocate the limbs of the person being tortured while the scavenger’s daughter would compress the body
The victim's head would go through a hoop at the top of the Scavenger’s Daughter while their hands and feet would be forced into separate compartments spaced very close together
This caused the victim to be uncomfortable cramped and restricted all movement
The Scavengers Daughter could be tightened by the executioner to compress the victim’s body even more
If tightened enough, the Scavenger’s Daughter could snap the spinal cord and dislocate limbs. The Iron Maiden The Iron Maiden was very intimidating as well as lethal
The iron maiden was about 7 feet tall and about 3 feet wide with double doors which made it large enough to fit any adult man
The iron maiden was equipped with movable iron spikes that were designed to pierce the victim in multiple places while avoiding vital organs
These movable iron spikes were adjusted to the person and the crime they committed
The confined space within the Iron Maiden in combination with the spikes made movement nearly impossible for the victim and gave the victim a sense of claustrophobia
The Collar The Collar consisted of a metal ring with spikes on top of it
The ring would be placed around the victim’s neck and then tightened
The victim would then be lifted up so that his toes were just making contact with the ground
This caused the spikes in the metal ring to dig into the victims jaw. The Head Crusher The head Crusher consisted of two bars, a metal cap, and a tightening mechanism
The top of the victims head would be placed in the iron cap with the victims chin resting on the bottom bar
In the earlier stages the executioner could firmly clamp the head and strike the metal cap which would cause a great deal of pain to the victim
The metal cap would slowly be pushed downwards with the tightening mechanism and compressing the head
First, the victims teeth would shatter under the pressure, then the jaw would break which would cause immense pain to the victim
As the cap gets tighter, the victim’s eyes are squeezed from the sockets and finally the skull fractures

Spying Murder Alchemy Thank you for watching our presentation
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