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Narrative Inquiry

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Melissa McNown

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Narrative Inquiry

Key contributions by researchers Ethical Considerations Participant interpretation of their lived experience may not be accurate which can cause the data to be skewed and the research study to be flawed

The researcher needs to ensure that proper context is set forth within this research study so that the reader can interrupt the data as intended

Some cultures encourage narrative research over other types of research, however this form of research only provides the lived experience of participants and may be hard to compare with other forms of research which are more structured What is a narrative? “model of natural oral narrative” Sociolinguist who in 1972 offered a structural analysis approach to narrative; a means of classifying story patterns that isolates narrative features

The Labovian approach focuses on oral narrative rather than written text; to study language as it is spoken Threats to validity Prior participant participation in testing which can skew their paradigm and perspective

Participants not articulating their full stories due to their own personal bias and not wanting to share all facts

The researcher's bias and misinterpretations of the stories and data Discussion Questions Why do narratives matter in educational research?

Share an experience you may have had working with narrative inquiry.

Is narrative different from or the same as a story?

How can researchers ensure that the data provided in narrative research is more accurately captured and interpreted? Validity and ethical considerations Narrative research is the study of how human beings experience the world
Narrative researchers generate and analyze stories of life experiences Theoretical underpinnings Human beings organize their experiences of the world into narratives (stories)
The stories that are told depend on the individual’s past and present experiences, values, who is story is being told to, and when and where the stories are being told
One narrative can have many voices
Knowledge itself is valuable and noteworthy even when known by only one person Data analysis Common Research Questions Sampling methods Aim of this method Reporting Data Collection Method details Narrative psychologist who in 1985 “argued that narrative knowledge is more than mere emotive expression; rather, it is a legitimate form of reasoned knowing” (Polkinghorne, 1995, p.9)

Important contributions to the body of social science knowledge; generating useful and valid knowledge. (Polkinghorne, 1996)

Proposed two distinctive modes of thoughts or types of cognition; paradigmatic cognition and narrative cognition. Each provides ways of ordering experience or constructing reality; complementary to each other Jerome Bruner "narrative is a way of knowing" A commonality exists between all narrative researchers; the study of stories or narratives or descriptions of a series of events.

However the variance lies in understanding what counts as stories, the kinds of stories they choose to study or the methods they use for study (Pinnegar & Daynes, 2006). Bruner's proposed ways of constructing reality
Research questions often change as the inquiry progresses. Narrative research is a way for the researcher to understand a phenomenon or experience, as opposed to developing a logical or scientific explanation What is the experience of the subject like? How does the subject describe their experience? Research samples are usually relatively small; narrative research concerned with the experiences of one or a few participants (Moen, 2006). Researchers might
“analyze the participant’s stories by retelling or “’restorying’ them into a framework that makes sense (e.g., chronology, plot). This often involves identifying themes or categories of information within the participant’s stories (e.g., time, place, plot, scene)"

“rewrite the participant’s stories to place them within a chronological sequence (beginning, middle, end) and/or a plot that incorporates a main character who experiences a conflict or struggle that comes to some sort of resolution” (Hoogland & Wiebe, 2009) Stories of experience can be shaped through discussions with the research subject in a dialogue, (e.g. interviews, one’s own and other’s observations) Written documents can also be used
Field notes
Journal records
Letter writing
Autobiographical writing
Documents such as school and class plans
Newsletters Multimedia can include
Videos Whatever the method(s) used, it is important to document the story in the individual’s own words Thematic analysis – reviewing data to find common themes within or across stories. A form of this is called “analysis of narrative” – moving from stories to common elements or themes. Functional analysis – looking at the role the narrative serves for individuals (e.g. cautionary tale, success story). How does the narrative help individuals make sense in their lives? Structural analysis – how the story is organized. One example of this is Gee’s approach of structural analysis: narrative divided into stanzas and each stanza analyzed by itself and how it connects to other parts of the narrative Retelling the story. This is also called narrative analysis – moving from particular data gathered to the construction of stories. “We use it to make sense of the world as we perceive and experience it and we use it to tell other people what we have discovered and about how the world, or more specifically aspects of it, are for us.” (Sikes & Gale, 2006) “Narrative inquiry has the power and the potential to reveal these individuals in all of their complexity and uniqueness to you, as researcher, in ways observation alone cannot” (Kramp, 2004, p. 9) William Labov Based on belief that “one cannot understand the development of a language change apart from the social life of the community in which it occurs”; indicating that sound/oral changes must be studied within the context of the community “real speakers in real social contexts” (William Labov narrative analysis, 2003)

Created the “Six part model” of oral narrative; a tool that can be used to analyze spoken narrative patterns and locate recurring themes/ideas (William Labov narrative analysis, 2003) Not all six parts are necessary for every narrative nor is there a specific order (Routledge (n.d.)

Although model itself may present data collection concerns, it has strongly influenced language studies and continues to adapt to new communication changes (William Labov narrative analysis, 2003) Labovian 6 part Oral Model of Narrative Researchers need to address the validity of the evidence as it is not based off tangible evidence.
Evidence in the form of storied texts differs in kind from evidence in the form of text or public observations.
Storied evidence is gathered not to determine if events actually happened but if the meanings experienced by the people are accurately described (Polkinghorne, 2007).

Narrative research is difficult to conduct as it not content based, it does not lend itself to a thematic approach (Ary et al, 2010).

Narrative research does not focus on the analysis of elements in language

There are no clear rules in the interpretation or analysis of the data

The content captures individual representations of the experience felt within events (Ary et al, 2010). 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c References Before we begin, some tips for viewing presentations in Prezi.

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