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Cromwell and the Puritans
Transcript of Cromwell and the Puritans
Puritans - 1
The Puritans were a group of English Protestants that worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms in England
They followed the ideas of John Calvin, a leader in the Reformation. These ideas gave rise to Protestantism
They believed that The Church of England had become a product of political struggles and man-made doctrines
The Puritans decided that the Church of England was beyond reform.
Puritans - 2
The Puritans believed that the Bible provided a plan for living
As a result, puritans stripped away the traditional decorations and formalities of Christianity
They were trying to "purify" the church and their own lives
Puritans - 3
They believed in salvation through hard work
The doctrine of predestination kept all Puritans constantly working to do good deeds in this life in order to be chosen in the afterlife, however they believed that God had already chosen who would be in heaven or hell
They believed working hard would honor God which would hopefully lead to a prosperous reward
Deviation from the normal Puritan life was met with strict disapproval and discipline
Puritans - 4
The puritans disapproved of all overly cheerful celebrations, behaviors, and clothing
This radical religious group came to power under the influence of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Oliver Cromwell
Cromwell's Early Life
Oliver Cromwell was born on April 25th 1599 in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire
He studied at Cambridge University and eventually became a Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 (for a year)
In the 1630s Cromwell began becoming convinced that he would be guided to carry out God's purpose
He gained a reputation as a radical Puritan when, in 1640, he was elected Cambridge's representative, first in the Short Parliament and then in the Long Parliament
English Civil War
The English Civil War (1642-1649) was between the army of nobility, rural gentry, and mercenaries led by King Charles I known as the cavaliers and the New Model Army of the English Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell
Cromwell and his roundheads eventually crushed the Cavaliers at Naseby. They captured the king and took over the government by force.
Cromwell ended the war with Portugal (1653) and Holland (1654) and allied with France against Spain, defeating the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes (1658)
In 1649, Cromwell dismissed members of the parliament who opposed his actions and formed what became known as the “rump parliament”
With this new government, Charles was put on trial for high treason. He was found guilty and beheaded on January 30th, 1649, an act that shocked all of Europe
After the abolishment of the kingship, a republican government called a Commonwealth was proclaimed where legislative power rested in the parliament and executive power in the council of state
In reality, the army that had defeated the king controlled the government, and Oliver Cromwell controlled the army. Therefore, the Protectorate was comparable to a military dictatorship
Oliver Cromwell dissolving the Long Parliament
The Puritan Effect
Cromwell’s state instated blue laws, laws designed to ban activities on Sunday for religious standards (e.g. for a day of worship)
Cromwell shut down the inns, bars and theaters
Most forms of work on Sundays were banned. Going for a walk on Sunday (unless it was to church) could lead to a hefty fine
In 1655, Cromwell dismissed the remaining parliament. With his standing army, he proclaimed quasi-martial law, dividing England into twelve military districts each governed by a general
Most sports were banned
Make-up was banned
The press was heavily censored
Dresses that were too colorful were banned
Christmas was banned
Cromwell's Views on
Cromwell was somewhat tolerant towards other religions
All Christians, except Roman Catholics, had the right to practice their faith
He also readmitted Jews into England
Conquering the Irish
In 1649, Cromwell led an army to Ireland to reconquer the country due to his belief that Catholicism in Ireland led to sedition
The people of Wexford and Drogheda surrendered to his forces. Nevertheless, they were slaughtered
He used terror to ‘tame’ the Irish
These brutal acts left a legacy of Irish hatred for England
Catholicism in Ireland was banned, priests were executed, and Catholics had their lands confiscated for English and Scottish settlers
The Fall of the Protectorate
The Protectorate collapsed when Cromwell died in 1658 and his incompetent son, Richard, succeeded him as lord protector of England from September 1658 to May 1659
He could not reconcile various political, military, and religious factions. As a result, he soon lost the support of the army on which his power depended
He was forced to abdicate and after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, he fled to Paris
After the restoration of the monarchy with King Charles II in 1660, Cromwell's body was dug up from the tomb of kings in Westminster Abbey and was hung from the gallows at Tyburn on the orders of a vengeful parliament
Whose writings did the English Puritans primarily follow?
Why did the Puritans work so hard to do good deeds in life?
Where was Oliver Cromwell born?
What was Cromwell’s army called?
Where did Cromwell annihilate the Cavaliers?
What was parliament under Cromwell’s rule called?
On what day was Charles 1st beheaded?
How many military districts was England divided into under Cromwell?
Name 3 things that Cromwell banned.
What year did
What was his
When was the English monarchy restored?
Because they believed that salvation could be achieved through hard work.
The New Model Army
Battle of Naseby
The Rump Parliament
January 30th, 1649
bars, theaters, sports, makeup, colorful dresses.
He later returned (with a different name) to live in England