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Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe
Transcript of Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe
Thierry Khalil 20101849
Set on a hill overlooking Stuttgart, Germany
Style: Modern Architecture
Twenty-one houses by different European architects
Artistic director, Mies van der Rohe
- Built for the Barcelona International Exposition of 1929
- commissioned by the German government
Symbol of Modern Architecture:
1. Open-plan spaces
2. Proportion + Minimalism
3. Materials: Glass, Steel, Marble
4. Furniture specifically designed (the Barcelona chair)
"The building should
show what we can do,
what we are, how we
feel and see today.
We do not want
anything but clarity, simplicity, and honesty."
-wealthy neighbourhood of Černá Pole in Brno, Czech Republic
-situated on a sloped terrain and faces to the south-west
Influences on his style
-His father, a master mason
-Karl Friedrich Schinkel
-Hendrik Petrus Berlage
-Frank Lloyd Wright
Mies called this composition as "walls standing free"
Walls & glass
in a sliding
with the columns
-Floating roof:flat in one board uniting clearly with inner space
-Marble Wall:composed in the same direction as ceiling, creates inviting entrance with glass plane
-Chrome columns: designed to almost disappear
-Pond/pebbles: creating a reflection of the project
Back wall for
King & Queen
Parallel, Sliding planes
-The classic statue
-the milky glass
-the travertine planes
-the floating roof
From this angle:
-The light glass box in milk-white: outward sight is blocked out. This enclosure may bring out calm atmosphere inside.
Designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe along with his colleagues Lilly Reich and Sergius Ruegenberg
'Brno' chairs made from tubular steel and upholstered in white sheepskin situated around the round dining table from black polished pear wood.
-Three 'Tugendhat' armchairs stood in front of the onyx wall upholstered in silver-grey 'rodion' material
-Three 'Barcelona' armchairs and a stool in emerald green leather
-A glass table
-A white bench
-Relationship between in & out
-Roof floating over columns
-Typical chrome cross columns
CAN THE TUGENDHAT VILLA BE LIVED IN?
art historian Justus Bier
rejected the view that the monumental, impassioned living space would only allow for a kind of ceremonial or showpiece housing
-Tugendhat Villa particularly reflects the influence of the German Catholic Modern movement:
Mies had met with philosopher
, one of the most significant figures of German Christian Personalism
“Large spaces provide freedom. Space has a completely special calm in its rhythm which cannot be provided by a closed room.”
view “the loose” and “the open” space of the house as relating to the architecture of the Middle Ages and the Baroque
The only positive evaluation
of the building in the domestic press came from the exclusive society magazine Mesíc (Month) which presented the Villa as one of the crowning expressions of contemporary aesthetic and technical maturity.
The plot of land was part of the property adjoining the Art Nouveau villa of Grete's parents and had the form of an English park from the 19th century.
“[...] The garden was left as a meadow to a significant extent
providing a small paradise for play for children [...] The children could sled and ski in the winter all the way to the home of their grandparents. It could have been the realized vision of freedom for this small wealthy family which was so important for Mies.”
860-880 Lake Shore Drive
-Built between 1949-1951
-Two iconic skyscrapers on the Chicago skyline that redefined highrise living for the post-war generation
-give residents a beautiful waterfront view
of Lake Michigan
Architecture should be
independent of the site
Mies approached the triangular site by arranging the
two apartment buildings at cross axis
towards one another, delivering
views of the lake, Lake Shore Drive, and the busy inner city Chicago Loop
which is southwest of the towers. The ninety degree angle that the buildings are situated in also enclose
a plaza at ground level
Mies’ concept of independent architecture is also seen in the rise of
the ground floo
r of 860-880 Lake Shore Drive which make the
towers appear as if they are floating above the ground
. On the entrance level,
a horizontal roof is the sole connector between the two high-rise apartments towers
and does not have any function other than to
“mark the spirituality of this specific place.”
Neue National Gallery
Years of construction: 1965-1968
Location: Berlin, Germany
-"It is so huge that a corridor of course means great hardship for the exhibition of art. I am fully aware of that. But it has such potential that I can not just take into account these difficulties. "
-Mies also rejected a request from the National Gallery of extending the underground area of the building because the expansion - for being invisible underground - would have compromised cubic perfect proportions of the building.
For Mies, the Greek classical temple represents the symbol of the ancient civilization, through which it has sublimated. The temple is a sacred edifice, a temenos that divides the divine world from human reality, so that humans can emancipate themselves. Since their emancipation, democracy, philosophy and art developed.
Comparison between the Altes Museum (Schinkel) and the Neue National Galerie
A letter on form in architecture
Dear Dr. Riezler:
My attack is not against form, but against form as an end itself.
I make this attack because of what I have learned.
Form as an end
results in mere formalism
. This effort is directed only to the exterior. But
only what has life on the inside has a living exterior.
Only what has intensity of life can have intensity of form. Every "how" is based on a "what".
no worse than the
The former is
; the latter
Real form presupposes real life.
But no "has been" or "would be".
This is out criterion.
We should judge not so much by the results as by the creative process.
For it is just this that reveals whether the form is derived from life or invented for its own sake.
That is why the creative process is so essential.
Life is what is decisive for us.
In all its plenitude and in its spiritual and material relations.
Is it not one of the most important tasks of the Werkbund to clarify, analyze and order our spiritual and material situation and thus to take the lead?
Must not all else be left to the forces of creation?
Mies van der Rohe
Is this still "Less is More"
tHE SEAGRAM BUILDING
Architectural pavilion ==> Urban Pavilion
Not structural - Vertical emphasis
-Reinforced concrete columns + Concrete core for lateral stiffness
-Diagonal core bracing (shear trusses)
AMBER TINTED GLASS
-Plaza takes up 60% of site
-Consists of 2 large fountains
+ many sitting spaces
-Attracts many people and creates a procession from the city streets
-Shows how crucial movement is in Mies's designs
-Glass facades inappropriate to display art
-A jump from the traditional museum idea of a closed building with exhibition rooms, into an open-plan flexible space
-64.8m long (cubic plan)
-stands on a podium
-consists of a large hall completely covered by windows
- 2 steel columns on each side, which free the corners giving the building a lightweight look
- clear idea put on a very minimal, yet detailed structure