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Biological Molecules: The Building Blocks of Life!
Transcript of Biological Molecules: The Building Blocks of Life!
Also used for structure in Plants & Animals Proteins perform the major functions in our bodies!
They are messengers and also major structures Nonpolar, not soluble in water (hydrophobic)
Are used to store energy Monomer Polymer small singular unit that acts as a building block two or more monomers joined together to make a chain forms a Nucleic Acids are DNA and RNA. They contain GENETIC INFORMATION that CODES for PROTEIN Nucleic Acids Elements that they contain: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
in a 1:2:1 ratio Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, ONE MOLECULE, monomer
Glucose, Galactose, Fructose Example: SUGAR and STARCH
Table sugar, potatoes, pasta Disaccharides: Two monosaccharides bonded together
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Table sugar Polysaccharides: Complex carbohydrates, polymer
Glycogen (animal starch),
Cellulose (plant starch) monomer: AMINO ACID
there are 20 different amino acids
"R group" is a special chemical group that makes each amino acid different
polymer: POLYPEPTIDE These are 2 proteins bonded together Elements that they contain: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Phosphorus & Sulfur Four levels of structure:
Quaternary Structure Triglycerides:
One glycerol and three fatty acids Phospholipids: In cell membranes Steroids: Hormones that send chemical signals in the body examples: oils, animal fats Elements: mainly C and H (some O)
They are NONPOLAR and HYDROPHOBIC DNA RNA Contains CHNOP! Monomer: a Nucleotide
3 Components: Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous Base 3 types of RNA
mRNA Organic molecules contain Carbon
More specifically they contain C-C and C-H bonds