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Temperance, Mental Health, and Education

The Temperance Movement, Dorothea Dix Revolutionizes Mental Health, Horace Mann Reforms Education
by

Alberto Fedeli

on 14 December 2012

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Transcript of Temperance, Mental Health, and Education

The Temperance Movement 19th Century American Reformers Introduction: America was growing and industrializing.[1] Americans were moving to cities,
and large numbers of immigrants
were entering its borders. [2] These social changes led to
an array of new problems
and new reform movements
seeking to solve these challenges. [3] Temperance Mental Health Public Education Mental Health Dorothea Dix (1802-1887): Results: Reform Spreads:
Orphanages are reformed into schools.
Work Houses and Houses for the Poor and Homeless are created. Problem: Most schools before the 1840s were private, and most families were not able to afford the tuition. Mann's philosophy was education is essential for a democracy, and free elections. Results: New York uses state funds to pay for public education.
1839 Teachers College created first association of teachers.
By 1861, the United states has some of the highest rates of literacy in the world; there were even schools for the blind. Average male during the 1830’s drank three times
as much as today (Alan Brinkley) Supporters: Washington Temperance Society Woman's Christian Temperance Union There was a special burden on them because drunken husbands beat often them, and spent the money on alcohol. "Linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." "Sober and pure world." Sarah "Annie" Turner Wittenmyer Frances Willard American Temperance Society Dr. Justin Edwards Lyman Beecher Edwards said the purpose of the organization was to "promote temperance while letting drunkards die off and rid the world of an amazing evil." Founded on April 2, 1840 by six hard drinkers: William Mitchell
David Hoss
Charles Anderson
George Steer
Bill M'Curdy
Tom Campbell Fourteen states passed bills for the humane treatment of the mentally ill, and more than 20 mental hospitals open in the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan. Massachusetts
Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Indiana
Illinois
Kentucky
Missouri
Tennessee
Mississippi
Louisiana
North Carolina
Maryland As evident from this presentation, all three of these groups played a major role in improving America in the 19th century. The legacy of these reforms can still be seen today from our current restrictions on the consumption of alcohol, the global increase in mental health facilities, to the largest public school system in the world. The End. ~By Alberto Fedeli Why? 1 2 3 Alcoholism Used to blame nearly
all social ills:
Mental illness
Poverty
Crime
Violence Ended up being taken a bit out of proportion. National Temperance Movement "An organized effort to encourage moderation in the consumption of intoxicating liquors or press for complete abstinence." 4 Timeline 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 The national temperance movement begins 5,000 state and local organizations are now part of the movement. Emotional sermons "Upwards of I00 gallons of spirits were poured not down people's throats but on the sand and I believe there is now none in the place. Dean and Knotts [liquor sellers] have become members of the Temperance Society and are now earnestly seeking religion." (Holt) Better Work Force 1851 Maine became the first state to ban the sale of alcohol. Mayor Neal S. Dow (aka The Napoleon of Temperance) 1856 Maine's ban gets repealed. The American Temperance Society merican Temperance Society has 1.5 million members (35-60% women). A The movement loses strength due to the Civil War. 1861 1865 1869 The Prohibition Party revives the moment. 1873 Woman's Christian Temperance Union
is founded. Kansas outlaws alcoholic beverages. 1881 "I felt invincible. My strength was that of a giant. God was certainly standing by me. I smashed five saloons with rocks before I ever took a hatchet." Nation would walk into saloons, scold the customers, and then smash all the liquor with her iconic hatchet. She was also the leader of the Carrie Nation Prohibition Group. Entering saloons
Singing
Praying
Yelling at bartenders to stop selling alcohol Lyrics:

(spoken)

In the middle of the sermon, Parson Johnson rose and started sniffing the air.

There was a peculiar smell tricklin’ up the parson’s nose. That told him that gin was ‘round somewhere.

And he closed his Bible gently in the middle of the psalm and started figurin’ mentally where that smell was coming from.

His eyes scanned every pew, and then he did declare, he says “I announce this meetin’ through…


(sung)

…until you kick in with my share.”

Oh

Bretheren if you want more preachin’

Save a little dram for me.

Glory hallelujah

Why drinkin’ gin ain’t against my teachin’.

Treat me with equality.


(spoken)

From this here smell it’s very plain to see

That somebody here’s been holding out on me.


(sung)

For

Bretheren if you want more preachin’

Save a little dram for me.


(spoken)

Now when they passed the bone dry law,

I was the very first to say that it never would stay

And neither did I think the law could regulate our thirst.

That’s why I’ve got some stored away.

Now since prohibition’s got us drinks is few and far between.

Of all the stingy brothers you’re the worst I’ve ever seen.

But I insist on my share.

Don’t say it’s all run out

Or else you’re going where--

You know that bad place I been preachin’ ‘bout?


(sung)

For

Bretheren if you want more preachin’

Save a little dram for me.

Glory hallelujah

Why drinkin’ gin ain’t against my teachin’.

Treat me with equality.


(spoken)

I’ve shared your joy and I’ve shared your sin

And believe me brothers I’m gwine to share your gin.


(sung)

For Bretheren if you want more preachin’
Save a little dram for me. "Save A Little Dream For Me" song from United States prohibition era. MEDIUM: 1 sound disc : analog, 80 rpm ; 10 in. CREATED/PUBLISHED Orange, N.J.: Edison. 1910 1940 1930 1920 January 17, 1920,
The Eighteenth Amendment went into effect. Enforced by 1,520 "Federal Prohibition agents" (police officers) 1933 Prior to the Volstead Act, approximately fourteen percent of federal, state and local tax revenue was derived from alcohol commerce.
Large increase in organized crime. Volstead Act, 1919 "An Act to prohibit intoxicating beverages, and to regulate the manufacture, production, use, and sale of high-proof spirits for other than beverage purposes, and to ensure an ample supply of alcohol and promote its use in scientific research and in the development of fuel, dye, and other lawful industries." Al Capone
"In a study of over 30 major U.S cities during the prohibition years of 1920 and 1921, the number of crimes increased by 24%. Additionally, theft and burglaries increased by 9%, homicide by 12.7%, assaults and battery rose by 13%, drug addiction by 44.6% and police department costs rose by 11.4%." -Dorothea Dix Problem 1. Society expanding and, industrializing

2. Inadequate mental health facilities Crime Caring for the mentally ill Prison April, 4 1802- Dorothea was born.
1812- She ran away to live with her grandmother in Boston.
1816- (age 14) She opened a school to teach kids how to "put away childish things".
1821- Opened another school in her grandmother’s house for older children.
Later that year she published her book, "Conversations on Common Things."
1836- She started having mental and physical breakdowns caused by tuberculosis.
She decided to travel to England for recovery. York Retreat- Insane Asylum This sparks her interest in helping the mentally ill. Massachusetts Prison Horrified, she noted "mentally ill women were kept in a damp dungeon with no attempts made to cure them". She found that the mentally ill were kept "in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience." January 1843 Rehabilitation Congress Dix gathered her observations and notes into a detailed report that she would later deliver to the Massachusetts legislators urging the need for rehabilitation. In 1845 she addressed the legislatures of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
She argued that the mentally ill could be cured back into society. In 1848 Dix submitted a bill to Congress that set aside 5 million acres of land to be reserved for the use of building mental health institutions.
1854- The bill was passed by the Senate and the House, but President Franklin Pierce vetoed the bill. Public Education Horace Mann- Education Reformer Mann was appointed secretary in 1837 of the Board of Education for Massachusetts, While he didn't actually have any interest in education, he took the job because it was a paid office position established by the legislature. Despite his original lack of interest in his job, Mann soon became a major advocate and one of the most prominent national spokesman for education reform. Teachers Doubled teachers salaries.

Required
teacher training. Re-organized schools United local school districts into a state system.
Increased government spending on schools.
Lengthened the school year.
Updated the curriculum. Mann's reforms were so successful that they spread beyond Massachusetts. Better Public Education Conclusion The Drunkards Progress. From the first glass to the grave.

Step 1. A glass with a friend.

Step 2. A glass to keep the cold out.

Step 3. A glass too much.

Step 4. Drunk and riotous.

Step 5. The summit attained. Jolly companions. A confirmed drunkard.

Step 6. Poverty and disease.

Step 7. Forsaken by Friends.

Step 8. Desperation and crime.

Step 9. Death by suicide. Made with Average male drank three times as much as today during the 1830's.
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