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Transcript of Electron Configuration
orbitals. Main thing that we should focus with the configuration is the ground state The lowest energy state of the atom. particular distribution among available shells. It is described by a notation that lists the subshell symbol. Each symbol has a subscript on the right giving the number of electrons in that subshell. Sublevel Orbitals Maximum # of
Electrons s p d f 1 3 5 7 2 6 10 14 Pauli's
that no more than two electrons in an atom can occupy an
must spin in
direction Hund's Rule The Hund's Rule states that for a set of orbitals, one electron enters each orbit until all orbital contains one electron with parallel spins.
Then the second electron will be added to each orbital pairing the spins of the first electrons. Hund's Rule is also called as the principle of
minimum pairing and the principle of maximum multipilicity. Aufbau Principle a German word that means "building up or construction States that electrons fill first the orbitals of the lowest
energy (ground state) until any added electrons occupy
the available orbital of higher energy (excited state). Members:
Blessey Periodic Trends Regions of the Periodic Table
Group 1 (Alkali metals) are the most reactive metals
Group 17 (Halogens) are the most reactive nonmetals
Group 18 (Noble Gases) are non-reactive elements Electronegravity Electronegativity – The ability of an atom to attract electrons in a bond.
Going left to right in a period, there is an increased attraction between the nucleus and the energy levels. Therefore electronegativity increases left to right in a period.
Going top to bottom in a group, atoms are adding energy levels which increases the shielding effect which means less attraction. So the electronegativity decreases as you go from top to bottom in a group. Atomic Radii Atomic radii – The size of an atom calculated by measuring the distance from nucleus to nucleus and dividing by two.
Going left to right in a period, the nucleus holds the energy level closer which makes the atom smaller.
Going top to bottom in a group, atoms are adding energy levels which means the atom gets bigger. Ionization Energy Ionization energy – The amount of energy it takes to remove a valence electron.
Going left to right in a period, there is an increased attraction between the nucleus and the energy level so it takes more energy to remove an electron.
Going top to bottom in a group, there is a decreased attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons so it takes less energy to remove an electron. Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Light waves Speed of light- 3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Wave length- Measure in nm. Distance between points on adjacent waves.
Frequency- Number of waves that passes a point in a second.
Formula: c = λv hi Light Waves Electromagnetic Radiation:
Form of energy that acts as a wave as it travels.
All forms combine to produce an electromagnetic spectrum. Photoelectric Effect Created by Max Plank
Theory that an object emits energy in the form of quanta.
Quantum: The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
Plank's constant: 6.626 x 10^-34 Js
E=hv Einstein Added on to Planck's theory
Said that light can be viewed as a stream of particles
Photon- Particle of electromagnetic radiation that has no mass and carries one quantum of energy
It's energy depends on the frequency Photoelectric Effect con... Electromagnetic radiation can only be absorbed by something in whole numbers of photons
When light hits metal, an electron must absorb a certain minimum amount of energy to loosen it
The minimum energy is created by a minimum frequency The energy required depends on how tightly the metals are bound H Line-Emission Spectrum Ground state- State at which an atom has the lowest possible energy
Excited state- Atom with a higher potential energy than its ground state energy
Line-emission spectrum- Wavelengths of light created when light passes through a prism.
Continuous spectrum- Emission of continuous range of frequencies of EM radiation
When an excited atom falls to the ground state, it emits a photon
the photon is equal to the difference between states Bohr Model Created by Niels Bohr
Stated that the electron can circle the nucleus in certain paths which had a certain amount of energy
Also, electron gains energy by moving to a higher level
But loses energy by moving to a lower level and releasing a photon that is equal to the difference between states Problems with the Bohr Model It didn't work for the other atoms and Didn't explain the chemical aspect of the atoms