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Foundations: The Cell

Kimberly Fournier

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of BIO121-CHP2

Chapter 2
Foundations: The Cell

The Study of Cells
Cellular Anatomy
Nonmembranous Organelles
Membranous Organelles
The Cell Life Cycle
PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by Steven Bassett
Southeast Community College, Lincoln, Nebraska

Adapted by Kimberly Fournier, for BIO121, The University of Rhode Island
Figure 2.2 The Diversity of Cells in the Body
The diversity of the cells of the body:

*The following figure shows the proportion of cell
size of the variety of cells in the body
The Study of Cells
Cytology: Study of cells

Common techniques used:

*Light microscopy (LM)

*Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

*Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
The Study of Cells
There are two types of cells in the body:

*Sex cells: Sperm in males and oocytes in females

*Somatic cells: All the other cells in the body that are
not sex cells
There are trillions of cells in the body

*Cells are the structural “building blocks” of all
plants and animals

*Cells are produced by the division of preexisting

*Cells form all the structures in the body

*Cells perform all vital functions of the body
Cells as seen in transmission
electron microscopy (intestinal tract)
Cells as seen in scanning
electron microscopy (respiratory tract)
Cells as seen in light microscopy
(respiratory tract)
Figure 2.1a Different Techniques, Different Perspectives

*Nonmembranous organelles

*Membranous organelles
Cellular Anatomy
Figure 2.4 A Flowchart for the Study of Cell Structure
Figure 2.5 The Plasmalemma
Figure 2.3 Anatomy of a Typical Cell
Table 2.2 Summary of Mechanisms Involved in Movement across Plasmalemmae
Figure 2.8 Receptor–Mediated Endocytosis
Figure 2.7 Phagocytosis
Table 2.1 Anatomy of a Representative Cell (Part 1 of 2)
Figure 2.8a Receptor–Mediated Endocytosis
Figure 2.6 Diffusion across Plasmalemmae
Figure 2.5 The Plasmalemma
Table 2.3 A Comparison of Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
Figure 2.10 Centrioles and Cilia
Table 2.1 Anatomy of a Representative Cell (Part 1 of 2)
Nonmembranous Organelles (5) (details)

The (1.)cytoskeleton consists of:


(1.b)*Intermediate filaments

(1.c)*Thick filaments

Cellular Anatomy
Figure 2.11 Ribosomes
Figure 2.3 Anatomy of a Typical Cell
Figure 2.9 The Cytoskeleton
Figure 2.18ac Cell Attachments (Part 2 of 4)
Figure 2.18ab Cell Attachments (Part 1 of 4)
Figure 2.16b The Golgi Apparatus
Figure 2.15 The Endoplasmic Reticulum
Table 2.1-2 Anatomy of a Representative Cell (Part 2 of 2)
Membranous Organelles (details)

Double-membraned organelles:

*Mitochondria: produce ATP

*Nucleus: contains chromosomes

*Endoplasmic reticulum: network of hollow tubes

*Golgi apparatus: modifies protein

*Lysosomes: contain cellular digestive enzymes

*Peroxisomes: contain catalase to break down hydrogen
Cellular Anatomy
Figure 2.12 Mitochondria
Figure 2.17 Lysosomal Functions
Figure 2.16a The Golgi Apparatus
Figure 2.14 Chromosome Structure
Figure 2.13ab The Nucleus
Figure 2.18ad Cell Attachments (Part 3 of 4)
Figure 2.3 Anatomy of a Typical Cell
Figure 2.21 Interphase and Mitosis (Part 2 of 2)
Figure 2.21 Interphase and Mitosis (Part 1 of 2)
Figure 2.19 The Cell Life Cycle
Cell Reproduction (Mitosis)

The first phase of mitosis

Paired chromatids line up in the middle of the nuclear region

Paired chromatids separate to opposite poles of the cell

Two new nuclear membranes begin to form
The Cell Life Cycle
Cell reproduction (Interphase)

*Everything inside the cell is duplicating

*Consists of G1, S, and G2 phases

G1: duplication of organelles and protein synthesis
S: DNA replication
G2: protein synthesis
The Cell Life Cycle
Cell reproduction consists of special events



Overlaps with anaphase and telophase
The Cell Life Cycle
Cell Reproduction (Cytokinesis): Cell membrane begins to
invaginate, thus forming two new cells

*Many times this phase actually begins during anaphase

*This is the conclusion of cell reproduction
The Cell Life Cycle
Figure 2.21 Interphase and Mitosis
Nonmembranous Organelles (details)


*Anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins

*Stabilize the position of membrane proteins

*Anchor plasmalemma to the cytoplasm

*Produce movement of the cell
Cellular Anatomy
Nonmembranous Organelles (details)

(1.b)Intermediate filaments:

*Provide strength

*Stabilize organelle position

*Transport material within the cytosol
Cellular Anatomy
Nonmembranous Organelles (details)

(1.c)Thick filaments:
*Found in muscle cells: involved in muscle contraction

*Involved in the formation of centrioles, which are
involved in cell reproduction
Cellular Anatomy
Nonmembranous Organelles (details)

Examples of microtubules

(2.) *Centrioles

(3.) *Cilia

(4.) *Flagella

* Microtubules form structural components or organelles. Although these organelles are associated with the plasmalemma, they are also considered among the nonmembranous organelles.
Cellular Anatomy
Cellular Anatomy
Nonmembranous Organelles (details)


*Free ribosomes: float in the cytoplasm

*Fixed ribosomes: attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

*Both are involved in producing protein
Membranous Organelles (details)


*Consist of cristae

*Consist of mitochondrial matrix

*Produce ATP
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)

Nucleus: control center of the cell


*Nuclear envelope

*Perinuclear space

*Nuclear pores

*Nuclear matrix
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles: Nucleus cont'd

DNA wrapped around proteins called histones


Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

There are two types:

*Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

*Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)

Rough endoplasmic reticulum cnt'd
*Consists of fixed ribosomes

*Proteins enter the ER
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum cont'd

*Synthesizes lipids, steroids, and carbohydrates

*Storage of calcium ions

*Detoxification of toxins
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)

Golgi apparatus:

*Synthesis and packaging of secretions

*Packaging of enzymes (modifies protein)

*Renewal and modification of the plasmalemma
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)


*Fuse with phagosomes to digest solid materials

*Recycle damaged organelles

*Sometimes rupture, thus killing the entire cell (called
Cellular Anatomy
Membranous Organelles (details)


*Consist of catalase

*Abundant in liver cells

*Convert hydrogen peroxide to water and oxidants
Cellular Anatomy
Membrane flow

This is the continuous movement and recycling of the cell membrane:

*Transport vesicles connect the endoplasmic reticulum
with the Golgi apparatus

*Secretory vesicles connect the Golgi apparatus with the
Cellular Anatomy
Examples of Intercellular Attachment:

*Communicating junctions

*Adhering junctions
Tight junctions
Anchoring junctions
Intercellular Attachment
PowerPoint® presentation provided by © Pearson Education. Inc.
Figure 2.4 A Flowchart for the Study of Cell Structure
Full transcript