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Transcript of Lesson 22
Energy, Producers, and Consumers
Where does energy in living systems come from?
How is energy transferred from one organism to another?
Organisms need energy for growth, reproduction, and metabolic processes.
No organism can create energy—organisms can only use energy from other sources.
For most life on Earth, sunlight is the ultimate energy source.
For some organisms, however, chemical energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds serves as the ultimate energy source for life processes.
Plants, algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and convert it into forms that living cells can use. These organisms are called autotrophs.
Autotrophs are also called primary producers.
The best-known and most common primary producers harness solar energy through the process of photosynthesis.
The use of chemical energy to produce carbohydrates is called chemosynthesis.
Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients are called consumers.
Organisms that must acquire energy from other organisms by ingesting in some way are known as heterotrophs.
Carnivores kill and eat other animals
Scavengers are animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of other causes.
Decomposers feed by chemically breaking down organic matter.
Herbivores obtain energy and nutrients by eating plant leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits.
Omnivores are animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that usually include both plants and animals.
Detritivores feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding them into smaller pieces.