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THESIS

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by

Linda Liang

on 20 September 2015

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Transcript of THESIS

MASTERS
THESIS
Colloquium
19.05.2015

References
Why?
~
25%
German single mothers have a mental health disorder vs 11% partnered mothers (1998)
In Germany, studies examined psychological distress (little external validity) or child's outcome but none examine
parent's mental health
nor with young children
Policy changes
& targeted interventions implemented need to have some evaluation
2
1
2
3
Mental Health
Predictors for
Single Parents
with Young Children in Germany
Rate of mental health disorders is
2-3x
higher in the US, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand for single parents
5
Hypothesis
Single parents with young children face
greater
burdens, stresses & vulnerabilities leading to mental health disorders
Age
Gender
Region
Social support
Employment & financial situation
Education
Abuse or neglect (childhood or partner)
Parenting stresses
Life stresses
How?
Single parenthood
Depressive & anxiety symptoms
Stress
Social welfare benefits
Number of dependents
Outcome
Mediators*
Exposure
Confounders
3
4
5
6
7
Literature
Child
Mental Health
& Well-being
Environment
Parent
Childhood
Education
Stress
Marital Status
Parental influences
Family structure
Social Support
Policy
Expectations & Norms
Gender
Development
Circumstance
Work
4
20%
of families are headed by a single parent, up to 90% are mothers.
14%
of those families have child under 3 years
1
Age
Demands & Resources
Objectives
1
2
Identify the risk/protective factors associated with these elevated depressive & anxiety disorders, and stressors
Identify differences between single and partnered parents for stress, depression & anxiety and within subgroups
Single
Partnered
vs
Depression & Anxiety
Stress
Incl. Sub-groups
Low income
Under poverty
Gender
Methodology
Measures
Depressive & anxiety screener

PHQ-4
4-point Likert

3 of 12

General stresses

PSS-4
6-point Likert

0-20

Parenting stresses

EBI 16
5-point Likert
14 of 20 per sub-domain

Social Support PAIRFAM*
4-point Likert
3 of 6

Partner abuse
Yes/No

Childhood experiences EMKK*
Yes/No

Socio-demographics
* Extracted items
1
2
3
Socio-demographics / Scores
General Stress
Depression & Anxiety / Parenting stresses
T-test / Chi-square
Chi-square / Mann Whitney U
Hierarchical Linear Regression
Logistic Regression
4
Non-normal / Missing data*
*Sensitivity analysis
Examples: Stata
Logistic Regression
logit depression i.single
logit depression i.single i.state i.agecat i.pgender i.job i.income i.edu

logit depression i.state i.agecat i.pgender i.job i.income i.edu i.support*i.single

Hierarchical Linear Regression
regress lifestress i.single
regress lifestress i.single i.state i.agecat i.pgender i.job income i.edu
regress lifestress i.single i.state i.agecat i.pgender i.job income i.edu i.overcrowd

1. Statistisches Bundesamt (2013) Haushalte und Familien: Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus - Fachserie 1 Reihe 3 - Wiesbaden
2. Helfferich C, Hendel-Krame A, Klindworth H (2003) Gesundheit alleinerziehender Mütter und Väter [Gesundheitsberichterstattung - Themenhefte, April 2003]. vol Heft 14. Robert Koch-Institut Berlin
3. Evenson RJ, Simon RW (2005) Clarifying the Relationship Between Parenthood and Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46 (4):341-358. doi:10.1177/002214650504600403
4. Cairney J, Pevalin DJ, Wade TJ, Veldhuizen S, Arboleda-Florez J (2006) Twelve-month psychiatric disorder among single and married mothers: the role of marital history. Can J Psychiatry 51 (10):671-676
5. Targosz S, Bebbington P, Lewis G, Brugha T, Jenkins R, Farrell M, Meltzer H (2003) Lone mothers, social exclusion and depression. Psychol Med 33 (4):715-722
6. Butterworth P (2004) Lone mothers’ experience of physical and sexual violence: association with psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 184 (1):21-27. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.1.21
7. Tobias M, Gerritsen S, Kokaua J, Templeton R (2009) Psychiatric illness among a nationally representative sample of sole and partnered parents in New Zealand. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 43 (2):136-144. doi:10.1080/00048670802607196
Queries
Pilot dataset available, but not identical
Dichotomise all outcomes or use as continuous scales but what about reliability & validity?
Interaction term usage
Subgroups
e.g. low-income singles will show greater rates than high-income singles
Multiple Imputation
Full transcript