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Long term adaptations to exercise (cardiovascular and neuromuscular)

Long term adaptations to exercise (lesson 1)
by

junaid khaliq

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of Long term adaptations to exercise (cardiovascular and neuromuscular)

Long term exercise
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Cardiovascular adaptations
Adaptations and responses
Difference between responses and adaptations to exercise
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P6 ... P7 ... M3 ... D3
Long term exercise
Increase in tendon strength

Immediate changes to energy and neuromuscular system are responses
How body adapts are permanent changes that take place .. long term exercise
Regular exercise = body adaptations = fitness
Human body adapts and responds to exercise .. cope with sport
Neuromuscular adaptations
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myoglobin stores
Neuromuscular adaptations
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Neural pathways
Summary
Cardiovascular adaptations
Exercise to a structured plan over a period of time ... examples?
Extent of changes depend on type and intensity of exercise
Responses include changes to the heart, lungs and muscles...
Cardio hypertrophy
Increase in HR indicates adjustment of healthy heart to training
Regular aerobic exercise stimulates increase in thickness of of muscle fibres and number of contractile elements in fibres
Overtime.. aerobic training increases the size of the heart
Increase in stroke volume
Cardiovascular adaptations
Due to increase in the muscle mass of the heart chambers..especially in the walls of the left ventricle
Increases ventricular contraction and athletes stroke volume
Cardiovascular adaptations
Increase in stroke volume allows a greater cardiac output.. so trained athletes able to pump a greater volume of blood to the working muscles
Increase in Cardiac output
Decrease in resting heart rate
As a result of increased stroke volume and cardiac hypertrophy.. athletes resting heart rate decreases
Why fitness = decrease in resting pulse rate
Elite athletes = pulse rate 30 - 40 beats per minute
Cardiovascular adaptations
Blood volume
Blood volume increases because of cappilarisation during term exercise
More space for blood to circulate which .... allows greater supply of oxygen to skeletal muscles
Trained males ... blood volume approx 75 ml per kg (bodyweight) .. females .. blood volume approx 60 ml per kg (bodyweight)
Cappillirasation
Aerobic training improves cappilrisation of cardiac and skeletal muscle by increasing capillaries and capillary density
LTE lead to development of a capillary network to a part of the body
Neuromuscular adaptations
Hypertrophy
LTE improves muscle tone and stamina
Training with resistance brings increase in muscle size ... aka hypertrophy
Muscular hypertrophy increases size of muscle tissues due to increase in number of myofilbrils and connective tissue .. which then becomes more pliable
Neuromuscular adaptations
As skeletal muscles become larger, stronger and more efficient... connective tendons adapt to meet increased demands
Without these adaptations serious injury can occur .. if the increased forces of contraction developed by the muscle cannot cause lever or bone to move properly
number of mitochondria
With training.. muscles increase their ability to store glycogen and myoglobin
With training .. muscles increase their oxidative capacity
Achieved by increase in number of mitochondria in muscle cells..increased ATP and increase in quantity of enzymes involved in respiration
storage of glycogen and triglycerides
With training .. muscles increase ability to use triglycerides as an energy store
Neural structures and pathways show changes as result of long term exercise training
Changes include
cellular adaptations
, modifications of
neurotransmitters
, altercations in reflex ..and chemical and biological responses
for example sprint training produces relatively small metabolic changes but has substantial effects on performance
changes within cell structure i.e increase in mitochondria
chemicals used to carry signals or information between neurons and cells
cardiac hypertrophy
increased stroke volume
increased cardiac output
decrease in resting heart rate
blood volume
cappillarisation
Neuromuscular adaptations
Hypertrophy
Increase in tendon strength
increased myoglobin stores
increase in number of mitochondria
increased storage of glycogen and triglycerides
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