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on 16 September 2015

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Transcript of Art

Area of knowledge - Art
Without art our world would be a very drab and grey world. We derive great pleasure from the arts, that in itself is enough to justify them

Art can also be an aspect that contributes to our knowledge of our own world, art can make the familiar feel strange while making the strange feel familiar. At their best it can help us to recognize truths we were previously unaware of and reignite our sense of wonder at the world.

Art and knowledge
What is art?
Moodle Question
Science, art and truth
To what extent do the arts help us to see the world with new eyes?
Is art the language of the emotions?
Can you value art with money?
Art as imitation
Art as communication
Art as education
The paradox of aesthetic judgement
Should aesthetic judgement be disinterested?
Are there universal standards in art ?
Do you think that our idea of art can only apply to our world? If aliens came how do you think they would react to our world?

As humans we can distinguish between noise and music, fiction books and non-fiction books, when you take them to an art gallery they would ask “what are these for?” how would you answer them. To the aliens art is useless, noise and music are the same thing, and fiction books are like facts.

Art is an idea that we formed that gives us pleasure, we create aesthetically pleasing objects rather than things that actually have practical value.

Why do we create art?
- We present art in various ways, we use art to avoid the orthodox designs of our world. It is part of our desire to pursue something that challenges the rules of physics, to find new ways around different things.

- Music used to be ruled by instruments like piano, violin, cello etc. now day with the improvement of technology we have keyboard, bass, electric guitars etc.

- buildings nowadays that incorporates art into the design which makes it looks appealing to the human eyes

Types of Art
- Paint

- Sing

- Dance

- Act

- Music

Reason, imagination and beauty
- Even though there are a lot of differences between arts and science, there is some similarity between the two
- Both of the ideas seem to have a goal of looking at patterns of the world
- Science expresses the patterns with logic and math, at the same time it appeals to reason
- Art expresses these patterns in a allusive and intuitive form, while appealing to imagination
- Einstein and the beauty of science

Discovered or invented?
- Scientific laws are discovered while the works of art are invented

- Artists think that art is waiting for us to be discovered, it is a skill that exist it’s just that we don’t know that there is such a way to present it

- On the other hand scientist also think that there is as much inventing than discovering in science

- So which one is it?

Science and art as complements
- alternative relationship between science and art

- science and art are complementary ways of making sense of the world

- science looks at things from the outside/ art looks at things from the inside

- soup example: science tells us what the soup is made from, art might be the criteria that tells us what is taste like

- by manipulating the specialty of one another arts and science can help us define this world

Art and truth
- Paradox of fiction: the fact that fiction is sometimes able to reveal deep truths about the human condition

- We seek truth through fiction

- Science always has one right and the opposite false yet art is different

- Two different art can be equally revealing the truth

How far our judgements about what distinguishes good art from bad are objective?

How far they are influenced by the culture we grow up in and our personal tastes?
First part: there are standards of judgement - is what what justifies a teacher grading a piece of creative writing, composition or a painting.

Second part: For it would appear that you cannot argue about tastes in the arts any more than you can argue about tastes in food.
According to the philosopher Immanuel Kant, there is a big difference between judgements of taste and aesthetic judgement.
I like this painting
This painting is beautiful

According to Kant, what distinguishes aesthetic judgements from personal tastes is that they are disinterested.

The point is that if you are going to judge a work of art on its merits you should not being your biography with you.
Psychological factors

The fact that the former consist mainly of horizontals and the latter mainly of diagonals is surely relevant

Since we are subject to the pull of gravity, we naturally tend to find the former peaceful and the latter disturbing.

Komar and Melamid
-They found out a striking similarity in the most popular paintings across a wide range of cultures.

-The world that we live in is dominated by American culture

-Despite our cultural differences, we end up with broadly similar tastes
Culture differences
How similar the artistic tastes of different cultures really are.
some people are more inclined to see the similarities between things
Some people are more inclined to see the differences between them.

There are universal elements running through all cultures, but this should not blind us to the differences between them.
Art don't have any practical function like other man-made objects, but many people would say that they also contributes to our knowledge of the world.

3 popular theories about the nature of art:
Art as imitation
Art as communication
Art as education
Purpose of art is to copy reality.

seeing does not passively mirror reality, but has an element of interpretation built into it.

"The camera never lies."

"creative reinterpretation of reality"

"Art does not reproduce the visible; rather, it makes visible" - Paul Klee

Art can subtly influence the way in which we experience the world.

How much the images you see, and the films you watch, and the music you listen to affect the way you see things?

"Life imitates art for more than art imitates life" - Oscar Wilde
"To understand the grammar and vocabulary of a language to know what a native speaker means."

Communicating with emotions.

When you are in love with someone, the words "I love you", it somehow fail to do justice to your feelings - for that is what everyone says.

Reach for a poem, try to make sense of the depth and intensity and uniqueness of your feelings

The connection between the arts and ethics is said to derive from the fact that hey provoke emotions that influence our behavior.

It shape our attitudes by offering us a range of role models.

We might speculate about the extent to which the movie we watch influence our attitudes about good and bad, and right and wrong.
Moral provocation
Art could be said that great art challenges us to question our assumption by giving us a different perspective on things. Almost all works of art raise some kind of question about how we ought to see things, or think about things.

we might describe art as moral provocation

Arts broaden our awareness, develop our empathy, and sharpen our intuitions.

Despite what have been mentioned, there are still people insist that a work of art should be judged purely on its aesthetic rather than its ethical merits. When an artist starts to preach and tries to teach moral lessons through art, there is a danger that she will end up being both a bad artist and a bad preacher
• what distinguishes worthwhile art from junk?

• Must be man-made (Sunset)

• There are different opinions about what is art, will explore three criteria:

1. The intentions of the artist
2. The quality of the work
3. The response of spectators

Intentions of the Artist
• Something is a work of art if it is made by someone with the intention of evoking an aesthetic response in the audience

• Artist is trying to communicate with the audience

• If something is to count as a work of art, then it should not be made with a practical end in mind, but simply with the intention of pleasing or provoking people

• Works of art differ from natural objects in that they are made with an intention, and they differ from everyday objects in that they are made with the specific intention to please or provoke rather than for some practical end

Criticisms of the intention criterion
• some critics have doubt that simply intending something to be art is enough to magically transform it into art (My Bed)

• art is judged merely by the intentions of the creator with no regard to its quality (Alex Gregory)

Quality of the work
• The second criterion for distinguishing art from non-art is the intrinsic quality of the work

• closely related to the idea of skill and the idea of beauty

• we expect that a work of art should not be something that a person with no talent or training in the art could have made

• A great work of art is perfect marriage of forms and content
1) The content of work of art is what it depicts
2) The form of a work of art concerns the way it is put together

• Great deal of modern art seems less concerned to produce beautiful things which please the senses than to shock or challenge the viewer

Criticism of the quality criterion
• Problem of forgeries- lack originality

• A work of art can sometimes show originality yet requite little technical skill

• Quality and skill seem to be neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for something to be a work of art

Response of spectators
• The third criterion is the response of spectators
• Work of art requires an appreciative spectator in order to complete it
• Key question to ask: Which spectators we should appeal to?
• Some artist may have a vested interest in dismissing the opinion “uninformed audience”
• Critics help you to decide which art works are worth while your time and attention; see things in art that may have overlooked
• Although they disagree in their judgments, but their arguments are usually much more sophisticated than “I like it/I don’t like it”

Other idea about the nature of art
Is everything art?

• “readymades”, these were simply objects taken out of their everyday context, renamed, and put in an art gallery

• Raise the question of where art ends and non-art begin

Turner : The Lake, Pethworth: Sunset, a Stag Drinking
Bomberg: The mud Bath
Derwent water by Chinese
Derwent water by English painter
• Distinguishing feature of a great work of art is that it is inexhaustible

• Great work of art stand the test of time and speak across generation and cultures
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