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Transcript of Inca
Sciences The Inca
Food Terrace Farming The Inca empire stretched north to south along the Andean range from Colombia to Chile and reached west to east from the Atacama desert to the Amazonian rain forest Military
& Government Terrace Farming Their land ranged along high mountainous areas, the Incas daily life was spent at altitudes up to 15,000 feet and ritual life up to 22,057 feet. The Incas lived within the Andes,so there
wasn't really any flat farmland.The Incas
developed a farming system that they could
use in the Andes.The terraces were in some sense similar to the rice farms in Asia.It was a set of steps that they farmed from. There were also roads extending through the mountains which perplexes scientists today because it would have been very difficult for the Incas to haul soil and rocks to such incredible heights. SOCIAL LIFE
EDUCATION The way they would build
a terrace is as follows.First
they would build a stone wall,
it was used to store heat and
then send it out at night so
crops would not freeze.Then
gravel would be put down which
was topped with sand and gravel.
Above that would be top soil.
Potatoes and corn were often used. TRIAL MARRIAGES:
They would try it out for a few days to see if it would work out
After the few days, the woman had the choice to go back to her parents or marry the dude
the man also had the choice to leave if he didnt think it would work out It was traditional for the king of the Inca's son to lead the army. King Pachacuti's son, Tupac Inca Yupanqui started conquest towards the north in 1463 Pachacuti was the first leader of Supa
Inca in 1438 Tupac's most important achievement was the conquer of the Kingdom of Chimor of the Chimu Culture in 1470. Tupac's empire went as far north as Ecuador and Colombia. At its peak, The Inca Empire consisted of Peru, Bolivia, most of what is now Ecuador, And a lot of land of what now known as Chile. The empires extended into parts of Argentina and Colombia. The Inca army was the most powerful in its area at the time. They could turn an ordinary Villager or Farmer into a solider who is battle ready. Every male Inca had to participate in a war at least once to be prepared for warfare again when needed. The Inca army had no iron or steel. There weapons were very like their enemies. Their helmets were made out of Wood, Copper, Bronze or animal skin. Round or square shields made from wood or hide. Cloth tunics padded with cotton and small wooden planks to protect their spine. The Inca Weaponry included,
Brown spears, wooden swords with Serrated edges, clubs with stone or spiked metal heads, Bolas (stones attached to a cord) and woolen slings and stones. people would rarely steal things cause people had everything they wanted
the worst crimes would be murder, saying bad things about gods or insulting the Sapa Inca THE BALL GAME
like basket ball, they would try to get a ball through a hoop attached to a wall
the hoop would be 27 feet high though
and you couldn't use your hands !
the stakes for winning were pretty high, because the losers would be sacrifice to the gods and the winners would get to go home and sleep with all the cheerleaders The Battle of The Maule was a 3 day battle between the Inca Empire and Mapuche people around 1471-93 CE. They offered them peace and claimed they were not going to take their land, they just needed to fall under Inca rule. The Inca's offer was refused and the next day 20,000 Incas battled 18,000-20,000 warriors. They fought for 3 days until the Mapuche tribes went home claiming victory. Inca Civil War was fought between both sons of Huayna Capac. The war was known as The Inca Civil War, Inca Dynastic War, The Inca War of Succession, and The War of the Two Brothers. Huascar leaded the Inca Empire and Atahualpa leaded the Northern Inca Empire. Atahualpa won the wars. The Incas was a Monarchy run government.
Started by the Supa Inca. Inca's had no laws, but they did have customs, expectations, and traditional local power holders who had governed behavior. The state had a legal force known as Tokoyrikoq ("those who see all") or inspectors. The highest inspector usually had a blood line connected to Supa Inca. The Social structure of the Inca Empire was different in areas but still had the same general structure. Top was Supa Inca, or the emperor. After was the nobles (usually priests, family members of past and current emperors.) next was Craftsmen and architects. Then working classes and lastly slaves and peasants. There has been evidence that the Inca Empire had trade with outer regions but not evidence of having a Market Economy. The empire had a traditional economy where the male head had to pay taxes in kind (crops, ect) and a form of labor known as "mit'a convee" and military obligations. Peru renowned as the land of the Incas, has an area of 1,285,216 square km, and it is on the Pacific Coast of north-central South America.It is the third largest country in South America, behind Brazil and Argentina. Peru is considered a tropical country. Travelers enjoy visiting centuries-old ruins. The ceramics and textiles that these cultures left behind are one of the most important sources of information about the pre-Columbian inhabitants. You can see these relics in Peru's museums. Prior to 1430 the Incas ruled over only the valley of Cuzco. The Inca Empire conquered and incorporated most of the cultures in the area stretching from southern Colombia to Central Chile. The Incas imposed their way of life on the peoples they conquered. By the time the Spanish arrived most of the Andean area had been thoroughly homogenized by the Inca. It can be divided into two seasons, wet and dry, although the weather varies depending of the region. During the coastal summer, late December to early April, the sky is often clear and weather is hot and sticky. In the second season, which is the remaining of the year, the garúa (coastal mist) moves in and the sun is rarely seen, plus the temperature drops, April marks the beginning of autumn. As you go inland, even a few kilometers, you leave behind the coastal mist. Just less than 50 km off Lima you can find the sun in areas like Chosica or Cieneguilla, where people go in the weekends escaping from the nasty garúa. The dry season is from May to September. Although at that altitude it can be cold at night, with occasional freezing temperatures in Cuzco or Arequipa, the dry weather means beautiful sunshine during the day. The wet season in the mountains is from October to May, but it really doesn't get wet until late January. The Sacred Valley of the Incas, or the Urubamba Valley, is a valley in the Andes of Peru, close to the Inca capital of Cuzco and below the ancient city of Machu Picchu. It is located in the present-day Peruvian region of Cuzco. According to researches it encompasses the heartland of the Inca Empire. The valley is generally understood to include everything between Calca and Lamay, Písac, and Ollantaytambo. The valley was formed by the Urubamba River, also known as Vilcanota River or Wilcamayu The valley was appreciated by the Incas due to its special geographical and climatic qualities. It was one of the empire's main points for the extraction of natural wealth, and one of the most important areas for maize production in Peru northwards from Pisac. The early Incas may have come from Wimpillay, as their mummies had been discovered there. it is estimated that the Inca cultivated around seventy crop species. The main crops were potatoes, sweet potatoes, maize, chili peppers, cotton, tomatoes, peanuts, an edible root called oca, and the pseudograins; quinoa and amaranth. Many of these crops were widely distributed by the Spanish and are now important crops worldwide. Salsa was originated by the Inca people using tomatoes, chili peppers, and other spices Each ayllu - clans - had their own self-supporting farm community. Ayllu members worked the land cooperatively to produce food crops and cotton. All work was done by hand because the Incas lacked wheeled tools and draft animals. The Inca also raised llamas and alpacas for their wool, meat, and to use them as pack animals The Inca road system was key to farming success as it allowed distribution of foods over long distances. The Inca also constructed vast storehouses, which allowed them to live through El Nino years while some neighboring civilizations suffered. and camelids (version of Camel),fish, and deer. In addition, they hunted various animals for meat, skins and feathers. Maize was malted and used to make chicha, a fermented alcoholic beverage. Everyone worked except for the very young and the very old. Children worked by scaring away animals from the crops and helping in the home. About 2/3 of a farmer's goods would be shared by a tax system, and the rest were for keeps. Some of the goods would be distributed to others, goods would be received in return, and the rest was stored in government storehouses or sacrificed to the gods. Their simple implements included a heavy wooden spade or foot plow called a taclla, a stone-tipped club to break up clods, a bronze-bladed hoe, and a digging stick. taclla They grew 240 varieties of potatoes.The Incas planted the potato, which is able to withstand heavy frosts, as high as 4600 m (15,000 ft). At these heights the Incas could use the freezing night temperatures and the heat of the day to alternately freeze and dry the potatoes until all the moisture had been removed. The Incas then reduced the potato to a light flour. They built stone walls to create raised, level fields. These fields formed step like patterns along the sides of hills that were too steep to irrigate or plough in their natural state. Terraces created more arable land and kept the topsoil from washing away in heavy rains. They also made use of natural fertilizers. Guano, the nitrate-rich droppings of birds, was plentiful in coastal areas. In the highlands, farmers used the remains of slaughtered llamas as a fertilizer. The Inca also raised ducks and dogs, which were the main sources of meat protein. They cultivated corn up to an altitude of 4100 m (13,500 ft) and consumed it fresh, dried, and popped. They also made it into an alcoholic beverage known as saraiaka or chicha. A child would not be named for the first two years of it's life. It would only be referred to as "wawa"
After two years, the child would be given a temporary name
Their permanent name would be given to them when the hit puberty.
The Incas believed that your name should reflect you. That is why they waited so long. Sapa Inca
- 1471–1493Túpac Inca Yupanqui
- 1493–1525Huayna Capac
- 1532–1533Atahualpa They began expansion in 1435 and conquered over the Tribe of Chancas. Him and his son Tupac made much of the Andes mountains under Inca control. It had 4 sections, Chinchay Suyu (NW), Anti Suyu (NE), Kunti Suyu (SW), and Qulla Suyu (SE). Origins Religion Wak'as There are multiple kinds of Wak'as They are usually linked symbolically with the landscape: mountains, springs, lakes, caves and rock outcrops What is a Wak'as? Some Wak'as were believed to be the Inca's ancestors who'd turned themselves to stone Others were enemies that their ancestors had turned to stone Wak'as that were mountain tops were said to control the fertility of animals While springs were worshiped to attract rain
Wak'as derived from the landscape usually had local signifigance
Larger Wak'as were known and regarded over larger areas, ie. Lake Titicaca Strangely shaped fruits and vegetables were seen as household Wak'as This idea also included coloured stones Ancestors were the Wak'as of those who were decedents of them. EDUCATION OF THE GENERAL POPULATION
(workers and common folk) didn't go to formal schools it was practical education about hunting, fishing, stonework, religion, arts and morality passed down from fathers and eldest family members through the generations EDUCATION OF THE INCA NOBILITY around 13 years old they would go to Yachaywasi (house of knowledge)
would be taught about religion, history, government, moral norm
young men would be given careful training in physical education and military techniques
finish around 19 years old
after passing their examinations, young men would receive their wara (a special type of underwear) CRIMES the punishment for any crime would to be thrown off a cliff
that stopped many people from committing crimes if you somehow survived, you would be given the job as a criminal where you had to go around the streets and tell everyone your story about what you did A staple of their diet was the potato but, not just one or two kinds of potato the Incas had over forty varieties of potatoes (in colors of white, yellow, red, pink, gray, brown, purple, black, spots and stripes) at their table. It is interesting to note that Andean farmers were the inventors of the dehydrated potato and it was the Inca rulers who systematized the potato drying process . The dehydration process was known as Chunu (pronounced ch'un-yu) and it was the dehydrated potato that prevented famine in Inca society. Corn was another staple in the Inca diet. There were many different names used to describe the type of corn that was eaten. There was sara which was corn for everyday eating. Sweet corn was known as choclo; and saraaka was corn used to make a sort of hominy called mote. There is mention that the size of these kernels were as large as marbles. The only beans out of over sixty different varieties that were not eaten by the Incas was the broad bean and soy bean. Many of the indigenous beans eaten are now fading away and may be lost forever. cuyes (guinea pigs) The Inca diet consisted primarily of fish and vegetables, supplemented less frequently with the meat of They actually had two road systems, one in the mountains and one along the coast, which ran 3,541 km each. They built 3,058 km of road and bridges which took great engineering and architectural skill to build along the mountain terrain. The road system stretched almost the entire length of the South American Pacific Coast. Inca art is mostly in the form of ceramics, textiles and their architecture. That is what is left from the Spanish invading and melting down much of their artwork. Pottery in the Inca Empire was common. The pots of the Incas were not fully their idea. The pot techniques were from the Chimu and some are thought to be of Nazca origins because of the palettes. The colours that the potters liked to use were red, orange and yellow. Many pots also had black and white. The designs that were used on the pots often had shapes like triangles, squares and circles. They also would use animals and insects such as llamas and butterflies. The pottery that was originally from Nazca turned into “aryballos” which was bigger jar with a cone shaped base so that it could be stuck in the ground. The textiles of the Incas were known to be very great; it is compared to the textiles of the Egyptians. The Incas used alpaca wool, llama wool, cotton and wool from the vicuña and the guanacos. The vicuña and the guanaco both look similar to llamas and alpacas. Once again, like the ceramics, the Incas took previous textiles and changed them. They used bright colours usually and had shapes more often than other things. There were two different types of textiles, cumbi and abasca. The cumbi textiles were more valuable, it used the wools of the vicuña and guanacos which were more rare than the alpaca or llama wool. These textiles were dyed with rich colours, had silver and gold thread and some cumbi textiles had feathers and shells. The nobles of the Incas wore cumbi, it was sometimes used as an offering to the gods and it was also buried with the elite. The abasca textiles were made from llama wool and worn widely by the general population. The buildings of the Incas were made with fieldstones and were a rectangle with no walls on the inside and a roof made from thatches and wooden beams. The stones of which the Incas stacked were so well carved and cut that they just fit together. Windows and doors were often trapezoids. Important buildings used rectangular cut stones while other important buildings used stones that were irregularly shaped but still fit together. The stone masonry of the Incas was taken from the Tiahuanaco, a site was discovered in Bolivia that was built before the Incas rose to power. They built buildings with materials that were nearby. To cut the stones they used stone, copper or bronze tools and split the stones along the natural fracture lines. Some buildings within the capital city had gold on them. The Incas scientific achievements were things like roads, bridges and farming. They also had made advancements in medicine and had a device to hold information called the quipu. It is a cord that holds around 100 pieces of string. The values were 1’s, 10’s and on. The string would be knotted at different heights, the higher the knot was the higher the value. Also it’s thought that the colour of the string meant a certain item. The quipu was used to hold information of inventory. The people that used these were trained in memorization. Since the Incas didn’t have a writing system the quipus were very important for the empire. The Incas were quite familiar with herbs and how they could treat people with them. They used tree bark from a certain tree that produced quinine which cured cramps, chills and other things. They also used the leaves from the coca plant to numb people. Hunters would dip the end of their arrows in curare which paralyzed the animals partially and allowed them to be captured easier. Doctors now use it as an anesthetic. Inca surgeons also would perform amputations and their patients would actually survive with good health. The discovery was made that the Incas actually did some kind of brain surgery on patients that lived through it. They would use copper or bronze chisels, tweezers, knives and hammers to get through the skull. The Incas would cut out a hole in the skull and get to work. It is believed that the Incas did brain surgery to fix head injuries and things like Chronic Headaches. Nobody knows if the surgeries actually worked though. The Incas had roads that went for 40 000km. They stretched throughout the whole empire and were from 3 feet to 13 feet. The roads were mainly north and south but some connected the two and others connected major areas to them. The Incas made bridges to go across chasms within the mountains as a large part of their empire was in the Andes. They used weaving techniques to make rope bridges from llamas, alpacas, grass and cotton. Stone was on both sides to hold the bridge there. These bridges were longer than stone bridges in Europe at that point in time. The Andes area was first settled 12 000 years ago by hunters and gathers.
By 2500 BCE, the people there had domesticated a number of plants and animals along the Pacific coastal plain, in the highlands, and in the tropical forest in the east.
The Inca's are a culmination of thousands of these years cultures evolving and forming into the Inca Civilization. Along the coast and in highlands the Inca people began to create mounds.
With a small core the people would gradually build on it and make it bigger over centuries until the mound reached its final form.
The focus of the buildings was the hearth which was said to act like a sweat lodge. The different architectural makeups of the mounds symbolized the difference in the many religious traditions.
People today still do not know exactly what the Inca people believed, however, these mounds offer the ideal that the beliefs were strong enough to work for centuries over single forms. The Inca's thought ancestors to be of great importance, a common mythological ideal throughout the Andean.
Ancestors were thought to emerge from the earth, springs and caves.
It is said that Manqu was the founding Inca dynasty and therefore the oldest ancestor in Inca myth. Manqu came forth from a cave with three brothers and four sisters. The place they emerged from was called Pacaricatambo, (meaning "origin place").
The siblings were given and gold staff and told to plunge it into the ground as they traveled form place to place.
They were supposed to settle where the staff settled deep into the ground. As they went one of the brothers was sent to go back to the cave and retrieve forgotten items.
The brother was betrayed by a second, who sent another man back to wall him into the cave. Another brother turned himself into a mountain, Wanakawri, this became one of the most sacred places in the kingdom.
They finally found the land where the staff stuck deep into the ground at Cuzco, where the third brother turned himself into a stone.
Since Cuzco was already occupied, one of the sisters, Mama Waqu, killed an inhabitant and cut him open. She pulled out his lungs and blew into them to inflate them. The people were so terrified that they all ran away. Story Time! This story is incredibly important. It is the basic precursor for most Andean origin myths.
Ancestral heroes emerge from the ground and move about the landscape, sometimes becoming a part of the landscape.
Another common idea is the story arc of people already living in an area and the hero needing to get rid of them.
Spaniards actually discovered, and later destroyed, mummified remains that were believed to be Inca Kings. Remind you of any Andean origin stories? Those Wak'as were only significant to those who were directly related. The sun,moon and stars
were also seen as Wak'as
As well as lightening and certain constellations, as well as the earth and the ocean
Wak'as can be represented by different names, and sometimes they were even represented by human-made idols. Maintaining a relationship with Wak'as Because there were so many Wak'as maintaining a strong relationship between all of them could grow exceedingly difficult.
The Inca's made offerings to them, and treated them with great respect.
The idea was that the Wak'as would reciprocate the respect in bringing rain at the proper times, keeping away killing frost, helping in the reproduction of domesticated animals and well as human reproduction. When things went badly, it was difficult to discern which Wak'as was unhappy, and for what reason.
Partially because of this problem, many different form of divination (ways to see the future and connect with the spirit realm) were used in the Inca Civilization to determine what was upsetting the Wak'as. Inca religion was very open and allowed the absorption of conquered peoples beliefs into its religious system.
Inca emperors were said to be Wak'as themselves, and their role was to know all other Wak'as, mediate between them, and assure a proper relationship between all Wak'as and humanity. One of the emperors, Pacha Kutiq' actually instituted the first instance of worship of a creator god. The god was called Wira Qucha.
During his reign he also instituted the Chosen Women, also known as Virgins of the Sun.
These women were selected at the age of ten for being the most beautiful and unblemished girls in the empire. They were then placed in convent-like places and taught the skills that a woman was expected to know: weaving and preparation of ritual food.
As some of these girls grew older they became concubines for the Emperor or were sometimes married off to nobles as their first or second wives.
The women who were not married off stayed in perpetual chastity to serve the official religion, the cult of the sun. Inca Rituals Almost everything that happened in Inca life was somehow aided with a ceremony or ritual sacrifice. Priests would lite fires every morning in which corn would be thrown on top of and left to toast. They would erg the Sun to eat the corn and remember that they were the Sun's Children. Watching the ritual meant that the sun would again rise tomorrow morning. Most writing on Inca sacrifices were written by the Spanish, and therefore be held as questionable due to their bias. However many rituals did in fact involve sacrifices. On the first day of every lunar month 100 llamas would be sacrificed in the main square. Clothing was also sacrificed. Any human sacrifices were reserved for very extreme situation only.
Only if there had been such things as a drought, famine, disease or military defeat.
Or there might have been criminals or prisoners of war that had to be sacrificed.
Sacrificing humans didn't seem to be so high and mighty in the eyes of the Inca, they sought to appease their gods and preserve the world first.