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Political Turmoil in Europe

French Revolution, Napoleon, Revolts and Unification in Europe; 7th grade World Studies
by

Andrew Lewis

on 11 April 2015

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Transcript of Political Turmoil in Europe

Chapter 12
Political Turmoil in Europe Section I
The French Revolution Financial woes Revolution Breaks out! Section II
Rise and Fall of Napoleon Revolution: Take Three 1/2 the budget to pay interest on debts
France nearing bankruptcy
Result of involvement in Seven Year's War and American Revolution
Spending more than bringing in
Several Financial Ministers later, Louis calls for the Estates General (1789) Third Estate claims to represent the people of France
Change their name to the National Assembly
Locked out of the next meeting, move to a nearby tennis court July 14, 1789 - Paris Citizens believe troops are there to get rid of the National Assembly
Riots, chaos, and looting
Angry mobs storm the Bastille
A munitions depot, prison, and symbol of royal power The National Assembly Progresses Nobles agree to give up several exclusive rights
Don't really lose anything they haven't already lost
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Demanded the end of many abuses
All male citizens are equal before the law "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" Royal family brought back to Paris, held under house arrest
National Assembly confiscates land from the Church Europe's Reaction to the Revolution Other countries are intimidated by the Revolution
Émigrés (people fleeing from France) spread stories and rumors from France America seen as the "boondocks" of Great Britain for the past 200 years
Massive growth of trade and economy over the course of the 1600's and 1700's France against the world Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, and Prussia unite against France
France creates committees to manage the government
Committee of Public Safety - formed to defend France
Eventually gained absolute authority
Used mass executions to remove opponents Over 300,000 suspected opponents arrested
Used speedy trials to convict and execute about 40,000
Many mistaken identities
Committee of Public Safety eventually dismantled and leaders arrested and executed First look at Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon's Rise to Power A little background... The Influence of the Enlightenment Voltaire Wrote over twenty-thousand letters, two thousand books, and numerous pamphlets Inspired the French to demand
Equality, civil liberties, and religious freedom
Advocated freedom without responsibility or accountability France largely rejects the Reformation
Huguenots (French Protestants) accept it
Louis XIV requires them to convert to Catholicism
Many flee to other countries Corrupt social structure
King has absolute power
Nobles immune from taxes
Huge financial burden on the middle and lower classes Reasons for Revolution Social Discrimination First Estate The Clergy - about 10,000
Wealthy bishops and archbishops
Exempt from most taxes
Enjoyed a luxurious lifestyle Second Estate Nobles and Aristocrats - about 350,000
Controlled or owned 20% of the land
Most exempt from taxes Third Estate At least 24 million people
Wide variety of citizens
Very imbalanced land distribution and taxing Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Married at the ages of 16 and 15
Louis inherits the throne at 20
Inherits a financial mess June 1789 National Assembly vows to never separate, establish a "just constitution"
Nobles and clergy join National Assembly
Louis accepts it, moves royal troops to Paris French government undergoes three constitutions during the French Revolution
Create a five man committee called a Directory
Made peace with Prussia and Spain, but still at war with Britain and Austria Directors acted more like dictators However Born on August 15, 1769, in Corsica
Very successful military leader in France
Rises through the ranks, eventually gains ultimate power 1799 - Napoleon overthrows the Directory
Made one of three consuls, quickly pushes the others out
Becomes First Consul (pretty much dictator of France) Contributions Signed peace treaties with Britain
Began public works projects (roads, bridges, canals, etc)
Founds the Bank of France
Improves the tax system, stabilizes the national debt
Establishes public education Fall of Napoleon Napoleon acted as the liberator of Europe
Seizes wealth of conquered countries
Countries start resisting 1812 Napoleon attempts to block trade with Britain
Russia defies his attempts, goes to war with France Napoleon Enters Russia with 600,000 men Russian troops outnumbered, draw Napoleon and his troops further into Russia
Russian winter and soldiers destroy the French army
Napoleon returns to France with less than 100,000 soldiers Defeated in Germany 1813, European rulers exile Napoleon to Elbe island
Escapes and raises an army June 18, 1815 Prussia and Britain Vs Napoleon Battle of Waterloo Section III
Revolts Across Europe Greece Belgium Poland Hungary Section IV
German and Italian Unification Germany Italy European leaders meet to restore Europe
Growing sense of Nationalism
intense devotion and loyalty to one's own country Come in Three Waves
1st- 1820's
2nd- 1830's
3rd- 1848 RevolTs Break Out Under Ottoman Control Since 1453
Seeking Freedom, begin to revolt in 1819
1829- Receives support from Russia, Britain, and France
1832- Recognized as an Independent Nation Suffering under High levels of unemployment and unrest
1830 - uprising led by working class
Belgian leaders support secession, unsuccessful King of Netherlands Appeals to the Great Powers for a peaceful resolution
1831 - Belgium recognized as a nation Endured many Foreign Invasions
1807- Under Napoleonic control
1815- Invaded again Congress of Vienna Allied divide Poland among neighboring countries, Russia gains the eastern portion Russia gradually reduces Polish rights and installs a brutal regime 1830- Polish cadets Rebel
Crushed in 1831
Does not gain independence until after WWI Under the control of Austria
1848- Hungarians begin demanding rights Austrian Ruler initially Accepts demands, However... Rejects them later
Sends the Army to suppress the demonstrations Austria and Russia Combine to defeat the Hungarians
Leaders executed, does not gain independence until WWI Zollverein 1862 King Wilhelm I appoints Otto Von Bismarck as Chancellor of Prussia
Bismarck supports unification with Germany
Uses Diplomacy, Propaganda, and Military strength to work towards unification War with Denmark and Austria Bismarck provokes war with Denmark over territories between Denmark and Prussia
Defeats the Danes easily, gains control of the territory Franco-Prussian War The Cause Leopold Leopold declines the offer
France sends ambassador to meet with Prussian King
Demands a promise for no Prussian king on spain's throne
King Refuses to make a promise Bismark receives a report of the meeting and Rewords the Dispatch to say the ambassador and king insulted each other
Publishes the reworded report
France declares war on Prussia Southern German States side with Prussia
Germany invades France, Traps french forces within 2 months
Kaiser Wilhelm I declared ruler of German Reich Risorgimento "resurgence"
Nationalistic Movement in Italy Giuseppe Mazzini Camillo di Cavour Giuseppe Garibaldi French society was broken down into three classes The Estates General Asked by Louis to come up with a list of grievances
Majority of members called for government reform The only political body that could reform the tax system
Divided into the three social classes
Each held one vote, but any two could override one Tennis Court Oath Reign of Terror Austria and other countries take in émigrés
France demands them returned
War soon follows September 1793 to July 1794 Napoleon defeated, exiled to St. Helena in the S. Atlantic Formed out of southern provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Held little in common with the Dutch (different language and religion) Unification grew out of nationalism German intellectuals revolt against the traditional German political structure
Not well coordinated, Defeated by the middle and upper classes 1848 Economic Union formed to enhance trade between German states
Reduces cost of selling goods, increased volume of trade
Progress towards German unification 1864 Convinced Russia and France remain neutral
Bismarck tricks the Austrians into declaring war on Prussia
Prussia emerges the victor and received territory from Austria
Prussia gained a dominant influence over the newly formed North German Confederation Southern German territories still fragmented and independent
Bismarck believes a war with France would convince these territories to join Prussia Who will be the next king of Spain? Related to the ruling Prussian family Invited to be the next king of Spain France protests Loudly Completes the German unification Divided into small kingdoms for centuries
Nationalism served as a driving force for unification 1832 – forms the group Young Italy for the purpose of unifying Italy
Slow and frustrating struggle Most successful at uniting Italy
Prime minister of Sardinia
Similar character to Bismarck
Willing to do anything for unification Send troops to aid Britain and France in wars against Russia
Uses the alliances to gain support for unification
Supports Napoleon III against Austria to liberate regions of Italy from Austrian control Disciple of Mazzini
Forms an army (“Red Shirts”) and conquers Sicily
Invades Naples, Italy; plans to capture Rome and control the Papal States Cavour intervenes and convinces Garibaldi to turn over territory to Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia Kingdom of Italy officially formed
Emmanuel II – named first king
1870 – Papal States and Rome added
1871 – Rome made the capital 1861
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