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Political Turmoil in Europe

French Revolution, Napoleon, Revolts and Unification in Europe; 7th grade World Studies
by

Andrew Lewis

on 15 May 2018

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Transcript of Political Turmoil in Europe

Chapter 12
Political Turmoil in Europe

Section I
The French Revolution
Financial woes
Revolution Breaks out!
Section II
Rise and Fall of Napoleon
Revolution: Take Three
1/2 the budget to pay interest on debts
France nearing bankruptcy
Result of involvement in Seven Year's War and American Revolution
Spending more than bringing in
Several Financial Ministers later, Louis calls for the Estates General (1789)
Third Estate claims to represent the people of France
Change their name to the
National Assembly
Locked out of the next meeting, move to a nearby tennis court
July 14, 1789 - Paris
Citizens believe troops are there to get rid of the National Assembly
Riots, chaos, and looting
Angry mobs storm the
Bastille
A munitions depot, prison, and symbol of royal power
The National Assembly Progresses
Nobles agree to give up several exclusive rights
Don't really lose anything they haven't already lost
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Demanded the end of many abuses
All male citizens are equal before the law
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Royal family brought back to Paris, held under house arrest
National Assembly confiscates land from the Church
Europe's Reaction to the Revolution
Other countries are intimidated by the Revolution
Émigrés
(people fleeing from France) spread stories and rumors from France
America seen as the "boondocks" of Great Britain for the past 200 years
Massive growth of trade and economy over the course of the 1600's and 1700's
France against the world
Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, and Prussia unite against France
France creates committees to manage the government
Committee of Public Safety
- formed to defend France
Eventually gained absolute authority
Used mass executions to remove opponents
Over 300,000 suspected opponents arrested
Used speedy trials to convict and execute about 40,000
Many mistaken identities
Committee of Public Safety eventually dismantled and leaders arrested and executed
First look at Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon's Rise to Power
A little background...
The Influence of the Enlightenment
Voltaire
Wrote over twenty-thousand letters, two thousand books, and numerous pamphlets
Inspired the French to demand
Equality, civil liberties, and religious freedom
Advocated freedom without responsibility or accountability
France largely rejects the Reformation
Huguenots (French Protestants) accept it
Louis XIV requires them to convert to Catholicism
Many flee to other countries
Corrupt social structure
King has absolute power
Nobles immune from taxes
Huge financial burden on the middle and lower classes
Reasons for Revolution
Social Discrimination
First Estate
The Clergy - about 10,000
Wealthy bishops and archbishops
Exempt from most taxes
Enjoyed a luxurious lifestyle
Second Estate
Nobles and Aristocrats - about 350,000
Controlled or owned 20% of the land
Most exempt from taxes
T
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At least 24 million people
Wide variety of citizens
Very imbalanced land distribution and taxing
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Married at the ages of 16 and 15
Louis inherits the throne at 20
Inherits a financial mess
June 1789
National Assembly vows to never separate, establish a "just constitution"
Nobles and clergy join National Assembly
Louis accepts it, moves royal troops to Paris
French government undergoes three constitutions during the French Revolution
Create a five man committee called a Directory
Made peace with Prussia and Spain, but still at war with Britain and Austria
Directors acted more like dictators
However
Born on August 15, 1769, in Corsica
Very successful military leader in France
Rises through the ranks, eventually gains ultimate power
1799 - Napoleon overthrows the Directory
Made one of three consuls, quickly pushes the others out
Becomes
First Consul
(pretty much dictator of France)
Contributions
Signed peace treaties with Britain
Began public works projects (roads, bridges, canals, etc)
Founds the Bank of France
Improves the tax system, stabilizes the national debt
Establishes public education
Fall of Napoleon
Napoleon acted as the liberator of Europe
Seizes wealth of conquered countries
Countries start resisting
1812
Napoleon attempts to block trade with Britain
Russia defies his attempts, goes to war with France
Napoleon Enters Russia with 600,000 men
Russian troops outnumbered, draw Napoleon and his troops further into Russia
Russian winter and soldiers destroy the French army
Napoleon returns to France with less than 100,000 soldiers
Defeated in Germany 1813, European rulers exile Napoleon to Elbe island
Escapes and raises an army
June 18, 1815
Prussia and Britain Vs Napoleon
Battle of Waterloo
Section III
Revolts Across Europe

Greece
Belgium
Poland
Hungary
Section IV
German and Italian Unification

Germany
Italy
European leaders meet to restore Europe
Growing sense of
Nationalism
intense devotion and loyalty to one's own country
Come in Three Waves
1st- 1820's
2nd- 1830's
3rd- 1848
RevolTs Break Out
Under Ottoman Control Since 1453
Seeking Freedom, begin to revolt in 1819
1829- Receives support from Russia, Britain, and France
1832- Recognized as an Independent Nation
Suffering under High levels of unemployment and unrest
1830 - uprising led by working class
Belgian leaders support secession, unsuccessful
King of Netherlands Appeals to the Great Powers for a peaceful resolution
1831 - Belgium recognized as a nation
Endured many Foreign Invasions
1807- Under Napoleonic control
1815- Invaded again
Congress of Vienna
Allied divide Poland among neighboring countries, Russia gains the eastern portion
Russia gradually reduces Polish rights and installs a brutal regime
1830- Polish cadets Rebel
Crushed in 1831
Does not gain independence until after WWI
Under the control of Austria
1848- Hungarians begin demanding rights
Austrian Ruler initially Accepts demands, However...
Rejects them later
Sends the Army to suppress the demonstrations
Austria and Russia Combine to defeat the Hungarians
Leaders executed, does not gain independence until WWI
Zollverein
1862
King Wilhelm I appoints Otto Von Bismarck as Chancellor of Prussia
Bismarck supports unification with Germany
Uses Diplomacy, Propaganda, and Military strength to work towards unification
War with Denmark and Austria
Bismarck provokes war with Denmark over territories between Denmark and Prussia
Defeats the Danes easily, gains control of the territory
Franco-Prussian War
The Cause
Leopold
Leopold declines the offer
France sends ambassador to meet with Prussian King
Demands a promise for no Prussian king on spain's throne
King Refuses to make a promise
Bismark receives a report of the meeting and Rewords the Dispatch to say the ambassador and king insulted each other
Publishes the reworded report
France declares war on Prussia
Southern German States side with Prussia
Germany invades France, Traps french forces within 2 months
Kaiser Wilhelm I declared ruler of German Reich
Risorgimento
"resurgence"
Nationalistic Movement in Italy
Giuseppe Mazzini
Camillo di Cavour
Giuseppe Garibaldi
French society was broken down into three classes
The Estates General
Asked by Louis to come up with a list of grievances
Majority of members called for government reform
The only political body that could reform the tax system
Divided into the three social classes
Each held one vote, but any two could override one
Tennis Court Oath
Reign of Terror
Austria and other countries take in émigrés
France demands them returned
War soon follows
September 1793 to July 1794
Napoleon defeated, exiled to St. Helena in the S. Atlantic
Formed out of southern provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Held little in common with the Dutch (different language and religion)
Unification grew out of nationalism
German intellectuals revolt against the traditional German political structure
Not well coordinated, Defeated by the middle and upper classes
1848
Economic Union formed to enhance trade between German states
Reduces cost of selling goods, increased volume of trade
Progress towards German unification
1864
Convinced Russia and France remain neutral
Bismarck tricks the Austrians into declaring war on Prussia
Prussia emerges the victor and received territory from Austria
Prussia gained a dominant influence over the newly formed North German Confederation
Southern German territories still fragmented and independent
Bismarck believes a war with France would convince these territories to join Prussia
Who will be the next king of Spain?
Related to the ruling Prussian family
Invited to be the next king of Spain
France protests Loudly
Completes the German unification
Divided into small kingdoms for centuries
Nationalism served as a driving force for unification
1832 – forms the group Young Italy for the purpose of unifying Italy
Slow and frustrating struggle
Most successful at uniting Italy
Prime minister of Sardinia
Similar character to Bismarck
Willing to do anything for unification

Send troops to aid Britain and France in wars against Russia
Uses the alliances to gain support for unification
Supports Napoleon III against Austria to liberate regions of Italy from Austrian control

Disciple of Mazzini
Forms an army (“Red Shirts”) and conquers Sicily
Invades Naples, Italy; plans to capture Rome and control the Papal States
Cavour intervenes and convinces Garibaldi to turn over territory to Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia
Kingdom of Italy officially formed
Emmanuel II – named first king
1870 – Papal States and Rome added
1871 – Rome made the capital
1861
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