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Cuba (Cold War)
Transcript of Cuba (Cold War)
power, a man named Fulgencio
Batista was Cuba's leader. Life Before Fidel Castro: Victory! Finally, after many attempts at victory, Batista fled on January 1, 1959. Fidel Castro Changes Economics Fidel Castro made many changes to the economy of Cuba. He helped it rise out of the hard times it was in economically. First Change 1961 Literacy Campaign An Attempt to improve education levels among the large portion that was illiterate in 1959. Second Change Medical Cuba reorganized it's medical system to provide universal health services. Cuba's health improved to be the best in Latin America. Third Change Industry Changed Industry was nationalized, agriculture was collectivized which seized American owned businesses and farms. Another major change to Industry was that they alienated US and allied with the USSR. Castro transformed Cuba into a communist country. Political Changes under Castro Denied Rights Fidel Castro limited freedom of expression, association, assembly, movement, and the press. Concerns in due process. Officially Atheist until 1992 but now permits "Greater opportunity for religion expression." But the government still remains in control of religious institutions, affiliated groups, and individual believers. Most emigration is illegal. Censorship is also a main area of complaints in Cuba. How Castro Remained Control over Cuba Forcibly took control and turned it into a communist party. Alienated the US and formed strong ties with the USSR. Kept the economy stable by nationalizing industry and making collectivized agriculture. USSR was the main reason he kept control because they gave them money and were Cuba's economic backbone. Castro's Reach to the USSR Cuba was economically unstable after their revolution. The Soviet Union aided in keeping the US from attacking since Cuba and USSR were allies against the US. USSR's Support System Soviet Union backed them with annual subsides worth 4-5 million.
Succeeded in building reputable health and education systems. Failed to diversify the economy Collapse of USSR in Relation to Cuba USSR government was forced to introduce tight rations. All money stopped coming to Cuba.
Cuba now maintains close ties with China and oil-producing Venezuela. Hardships led to increase in prostitution, corruption, black marketing, and escapees. Fidel Castro Bio Video Relations with the US Bay of Pigs WHEN: April 19th 1961
WHAT: CIA launched on attempt at a full-scale invasion of Cuba, but were badly outnumbered by Castro's troops. They surrendered after less than 24 hours of fighting.
REASONS: There were a few different theories for why the US invaded Cuba. The majority of people believed that President Eisenhower wanted to stop the spread of communism in Cuba from reaching the United States. They also believed the President was trying to prevent Castro from stopping the ships coming to America that were carrying raw materials, and keeping the substances for Cuba instead. Also that Eisenhower wanted to ultimately subdue the thought that communism was better than democracy. But the conspiracy theorists believed that the US wanted revenge because Russia shot American U-2 plane that was over Russia down as an act against democracy, so rather than attacking Russia, they attacked the nearby allies of Russia, Cuba. Results of the Bay Of Pigs US Trade Embargo of Cuba Embargo- an official Ban on trade with a particular country.
Basically what this meant was the United States forbade any trade with Cuba and the US, which would hurt their economy very badly. And in 1996, the United States went one step further and prohibited US citizens from doing business with Cuba, or providing any financial help.
There was one other major result of the Bay of Pigs and that was...... Cuban Missile Crisis October 29th 1962 The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world ever came to Nuclear war.
In October of 1962 an American spy plane secretly photographed nuclear missile sites being built by the Soviet Union on the island of Cuba. To stop Soviets from bringing any more military supplies into Cuba, President John F. Kennedy put a naval blockade, or a ring of ships, around Cuba. On October 26th, Russian ambassador, Khrushchev, sent president Kennedy a telegram telling him that if he removed the blockade around Cuba, he would remove the missile sites from Cuba. Before Kennedy could reply, on October 27th, Khrushchev sent another telegram saying that Kennedy must also remove the top secret missile bases the US had in Turkey in order for Russia to remove theirs bases in Cuba. On the same day, an American plane was shot down over Cuba and it looked as if the war was about to begin. But President Kennedy ignored the plane incident, and the second letter, and agreed to lift the blockade if Russia would destroy their missile sites. They also agreed in secret to remove their missile sites in Turkey, but that wasn't revealed to the public until more than 25 years later. This ended the missile Crisis, but not the Arms race. THE END The Communist Revolution: Castro's first attempt to overthrow Batista had failed.
This attempt happened on July 26, 1953. Castro led an attack on the Moncada Military Barracks in Santiago, but was defeated by Batista's army. Castro himself was arrested and sentenced to 15 years in prison, but was released in 1955 by Batista in
a show of supreme power. Second Attempt: Fidel Castro was not discouraged, and although defeated this would not be his last attempt to take over Batista. On December 2, 1956, Castro gathered a group of 81 men, including "Che" Guevara and Raul Castro, to lead an expedition into land in eastern Cuba. All men were either captured or killed, besides Raul and Fidel Castro and "Che" Guevara. These men all fled to Sierra Maestra to wage guerrilla warfare against the Batista forces. With help from other revolutionaries in Cuba, Castro and his followers helped spark a national uprising against Batista. Castro's propaganda efforts helped gain widespread support, and multiple victories against Batista's army helped him gain even more. Batista's army became demoralized and poorly led, which increased the numbers of victories against them. Gaining Support: Many people wanted to get Batista out of power, which only helped Castro gain even more support. Batista was a brutal leader, one that took away the people's right to vote. People in the poorer countryside saw Castro as a person who would improve their lives. Most people wanted someone to support and stand up for the poor because most people at that time were in financial trouble. Castro also vowed to improve relations with the U.S, and they wanted to get rid of Batista and the corruption that surrounded his ruling. Fidel Castro: Leader of Cuba After Batista fled on January 1, 1959, Castro had finally been granted power. Although not immediately appointed president, Castro succeeded in taking over the new Cuban government by the end of July. Raul Castro Che Guevara Works Cited: Kaitlyn's Websites: history1900s.about.com
hyperhistory.net Amy's Websites: Mina's Websites: www.history.com
Britannica Blog Bay of Pigs Video http://thecubaneconomy.com/articles/2010/10/cuba%e2%80%99s-achievements-under-the-presidency-of-fidel-castro-the-top-ten/
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB393/ Presentation By: Kaitlyn Dwenger, Mina Zenni, and Amy Witte Subsides:
Definition of 'Subsidy'
A benefit given by the government to groups or individuals usually in the form of a cash payment or tax reduction. The subsidy is usually given to remove some type of burden and is often considered to be in the interest of the public.
Politics play an important part in subsidization. In general, the left is more in favor of having subsidized industries, while the right feels that industry should stand on its own without public funds.
Explaination of 'Subsidy'
There are many forms of subsidies given out by the government, including welfare payments, housing loans, student loans and farm subsidies. For example, if a domestic industry, like farming, is struggling to survive in a highly competitive international industry with low prices, a government may give cash subsidies to farms so that they can sell at the low market price but still achieve financial gain.
If a subsidy is given out, the government is said to subsidize that group/industry.