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Lexi Morgan

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Sleep

Different Stages of Sleep
There are 5 stages of sleep
they do not occur in sequence.
3 repeats
stage 2 repeats
REM sleep occurs,
stage 2.

Stage 1
Stage 2
Theta waves activity continues
Sleep spindles and K complexes occur
Body temperature drops
Lasts for about 20 minutes
Stages 1 and 2 are "light" stages of sleep
Stage 3 and 4
A very light sleep
Between being awake and being asleep
Lasts about 5-10 minutes
The brain produces theta waves
Stage 5
Delta waves produced
Stage 3, less than 50%. Stage 4, more than 50%.
Heart rate and blood pressure lower
"Deep" sleep
Difficult to wake somebody in these stages
Sleep walking, sleep talking, and night terrors most likely to occur here
Known as the REM stage (rapid eye movement)
Eyes dart around while eyes are closed
Dramatic loss of muscle tone
Breathing speeds up
Heart rate increases
Brain waves have characteristics similar to when a person is awake
90 minutes after falling asleep
Lasts about 10-15 minutes in first cycles, later becoming 30-40 minutes
How Much Sleep You Need


(0–2 months)
12–18 hours

(3–11 months)
14–15 hours

(1–3 years)
12–14 hours

(3–5 years)
11–13 hours

(5–10 years)
10–11 hours

(10–17 years)
8.5–9.25 hours

(18-100000000 years)
7–9 hours

Too Much Sleep
Infants need 14-18 hours
Toddlers need 12-14 hours
Children need 10-11 hours
Teens need 8.5-9.25 hours
Adults need 7-9 hours
Not Enough Sleep
Habits Preventing Sleep
Sleep Disorders
There are four major sleep disorders.
Sleep Apnea
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
Sleep Apnea
Restless Leg Syndrome
Trouble Sleeping?
Sleep Schedules
Higher risk of weight gain and obesity
Increases hunger
Decreases physical activity (lack of sleep makes people tired during daytime)
Lower body temperatures
Mood disorders
Lower life expectancy
You May Have a Sleep Disorder If:
There are also smaller problems called parasomnias
Dreaming is a form of thinking that occurs while we are asleep.
This is mainly just our mind taking in what is going on around us and in our minds.
No one really knows why we dream
Most people have between 4-6 dreams every night.
We don't remember most of our dreams
In the first 5 minutes after waking up, you forget 50%
In the first 15 minutes, you forget 90%
Hypersomnia - excessive daytime sleepiness and/or nighttime sleep
Napping at inappropriate times
Difficulty waking up
Memory loss
Inability of five senses
5% of population diagnosed
Not many people think oversleeping is an issue
Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep or maintain sleep. Symptoms include:
Lying awake for long periods of time before falling asleep
Sleeping for short periods
Being awake for a majority of the night
Feeling like you haven't slept at all
Waking up too early
There are various things that can distract you from sleep that aren't directly related to disorders
Daytime Habits
Sleep Distractions
Your sleep can alter and be affected.
Going to bed and waking up at the same time is important
Regular sleep routines keeps your internal body clock steady
Helps you rest better.
When diagnosed, will be treated by antihistamines, sedatives, and/or antidepressants.
You frequently have difficulty sleeping
You snore loudly
You stop breathing or gasp for breath during sleep.
You suffer from excessive sleepiness during the day.
You have unpleasant feelings in your legs when trying to sleep.
Use of technology before sleep can affect in lots of distractions
Your phone will stimulate your brain before sleep, making it harder to fall asleep and stay asleep
People feel like they need to be in touch of the world 24/7
Your mind will shut down naturally before sleep, but use of technology will prevent that
Your phone screen brightness affects the amount of melatonin the body produces
Melatonin - a hormone that controls the sleep cycle
People should allow themselves 30 minutes to an hour to prepare for sleep
A low screen brightness and holding the device a distance away from your face can prevent the risk
Half of the caffeine you consume at 7 pm is still in your body at 11 pm
Hunger can affect your sleep
Have a light snack before sleeping
Foods with tryptophan can help with sleep
Dairy products, bananas, peanut butter, yogurt
Consuming fluids before sleeping can affect it
Sleep apnea is when there are breathing interruptions during sleep. Normal breathing returns with a snort or choking sound. Symptoms include:
Excessive daytime sleepiness
Morning headaches
Impaired mental and emotional state
Napping isn't always bad
Good way to catch up on sleep
Naps usually last 30-60 minutes
Any longer will disrupt sleep schedule
Using technology before or in bed
Eating big meals before bed
Exercising directly before bed
Having an inconsistent sleep schedule
Drinking caffeine or alcohol before bed
Treated by:
Lifestyle changes
sleeping on one's side, quitting smoking, not drinking alcohol before sleeping, weight loss
Breathing devices
Dental devices
Keep a sleep schedule
Make sure your bedroom is quiet, dark and comfortable
Make sure your bed is comfortable
Only use your bed for sleeping
Remove all TVs, computers, and other electronics from your bedroom.
Exercise regularly but not within a few hours of bedtime.
Avoid large meals before bedtime.
Ignore the Clock

Abnormal things that can occur in any part of the sleep cycle.
Sleepwalking and talking
Head banging
Wetting the bed
Grinding teeth
Confusion arousals
Sleep terrors - screaming/shouting, sweating, etc.
In most cases, no treatment is necessary
More common in children
Narcolepsy is having daytime "sleep attacks". Primary symptoms include:
Excessive daytime sleepiness
Sudden muscle weakness

Treated by regularly scheduled naps and stimulants to try and decrease disruptiveness on someone's life.
A powerful urge to move one's legs.
"crawling" beneath the the skin in legs
4 out of 5 RLS patients also have PLMD where the legs jerk every 20-40 seconds

The Importance of Sleep
Sleep affects a wide variety of things, including;
Brain function
Learning ability, memory, ability to make good decisions
Balance of ghrelin and leptin hormones
Immune system
How body reacts to insulin
Daytime performance
85% of Teens don't get the Sleep They Need
Often said to be due to school, homework and sports. If our school were to start and end an hour later, would kids get more sleep?
Fact vs. Myth
Myth: To function best, you need to get eight hours
Fact: Every person requires a different amount of sleep
Myth: If you can get it, more sleep is always healthier
Fact: You need to get enough sleep but you can also get too much
Myth: You can make up for lost sleep on weekends.
Fact: Your body has a sleep schedule that is intact everyday not just certain days of the week
Myth: Taking naps will disrupt your sleep schedule
Fact: Short naps will have no effect on your sleep schedule and can actually give you a boost of energy
Lexi Morgan, Kienna Qin and Catherine Wei
Sleep Paralysis
Inability to move during sleep
Connected with hallucinations
During REM sleep
Body is asleep but mind is awake
Lucid Dreams
When you are aware you are dreaming
Can control parts of the dream
Rare but can be accomplished
Mind throws away logic
Can be ended by or lead to:
False awakenings
Sleep paralysis
Out-of-body experience
Set a Goal
An easy way to be able to work more sleep into your schedule would be to turn off your phone and try to get to bed 15-20 minutes earlier every week. Doing your homework and other stressful activities as soon as you can will also help
Do a sleep log over the weekend, recording the activity you do two hours before you go to sleep, when you go to sleep, and when you wake up.
Activity Time you went to sleep Time you woke up
9:00 Ate a snack
9:30 took a shower
10:20 played on cellphone a bit before sleeping
11:45 pm 10:05 am
Treated by lifestyle changes or antiseizure agent.
Questions or Comments?
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