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Learning Theories

Learning and Communicating Online
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Your Prezis

on 30 January 2016

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Transcript of Learning Theories

Learning Theories
Cobb, P 1988,
The tension between theories of learning and instruction in mathematics education,
Educational Psychologist, pp. 87-103, viewed 2 January 2016, <http://bit.ly/1PQ2dXZ>

Gould, J 2009,
Learning Theory and Classroom Practice in the Lifelong Learning Sector
, SAGE Publications, EBL Book Library.

Herrington, J & Oliver, R 1995,
Critical Characteristics of Situated Learning: Implications for the Instructional Design of Multimedia
, Edith Cowan University, viewed 15 January 2016, <http://methodenpool.unikoeln.de/situierteslernen/herrington.pdf>.

Keesee, G 2011,
Learning Theories, Teaching and Learning Resources
, viewed 14 January 2016, <http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learningtheories>.

Learning for the 21st Century! 2012,
Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism
, 30 December, viewed 16 January 2016, <https://youtu.be/KYDYzR-ZWRQ>.

Locke, J 1854,
The works of John Locke: Volume 2: Philosophical works,
London, Great Britain, vol. 2, pp. 1-128, viewed 2nd January 2016, <http:psycnet.apa.org.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.aubooks/14215/001.pdf>

McLeod, S 2007,
Bowlby's Attachment Theory,
viewed 11 january 2016
,
<http://www.simplypsychology.org/bowlby.html>
Learning and Communicating Online
Brad Bennetts, Jill Taylor, Lee Bush,
Jesse Arden, Qiang Lyu, Kathe Roncal

References continued
Bereiter, C 1997,
Situated Cognition and How to Overcome It
, Centre for Applied Cognitive Science, viewed 15 January 2016, <http://people.ucsc.edu/~gwells/Files/Courses_Folder/ED%20261%20Papers/Bereiter.SitCog.pdf>.

Berkely Graduate Division 2016,
Cognitive Constructivism
, Berkely Graduate Division, viewed 8 January 2016, <http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/cognitive-constructivism/>.

Billett, S 1994,
Situated Learning- a workplace experience
, School of Adult & Vocational Education Faculty of Education Griffith University, viewed 15 January 2016, <http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/11822/ajae.pdf?sequence=1>

BrainPOP Educators 2008, BrainPOP Educators, viewed 14 January 2016, <https://3726zl2aw6yv43so6z3auhmo-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/120618_BrainPOP_White_Paper.pdf>.

Bretherton, I 1992,
The Origins of Attatchment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth,
Developmental Psychology, pp. 1-2, viewed 12 January 2016, <http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/inge_origins.pdf>

Brotherson, S 2005, Family Science Specialist NDSU Extension Service, viewed 8 January 2016 , <https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs617.pdf>
References
Pros:
Encourages questions, teachers take a back seat and allow the students to lead the discussions about an issue.
This theory helps students formulate their own understanding of a topic. Students are active participants in the learning process.
Cons:
Lack of a formal structure
The teacher acts as a guide, so discussions can wander
It also lacks the traditional forms of grading, meaning that students could fall behind their peers and a teacher might not realise that they are struggling to retain the content that is being taught.
PROS:

Active learning through discovery
The learner is the focus of the lesson design process
Schema (prerequisite knowledge) enables the learner to make more meaningful connections

CONS:

Requires motivation to promote learning, which some learners may lack
Learners may have very little prior knowledge about a topic, which will limit participation and understanding

(Kessee 2011)
Petters, D 2006,
Attachment Theory and Artificial Cognitive Systems1,
Aston University, p. 1, viewed 13 January 2016, <http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~ddp/ArtificialAttachment_EUCognitionBriefing.pdf>

Shank, RC 1994,
Active learning through multimedia
, IEEE multimedia , 1994, Vol.1(1), p.69-78.

Tennyson, R & Volk, A 2015,
Learning Theories and Educational Paradigms
, in James D. Wright (ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp. 699-711. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.92036-1

Teo, T 2008,
Beliefs about teaching and uses of technology among pre-service teachers
. Asia-Pacific journal of Teacher education, 36, 163-174. Viewed 5 January 2016, <https://www.researchgate.net/profileTimothy_Teopublication/232893563_Beliefs_about_teaching_and_uses_of_technology_among_preservice_teachers/links/02e7e528a65aabf885000000.pdf>

Venne, G 1989,
High School Students Write about Math,
English Journal, 78(1), pp. 64-66. Viewed 6 January 2016, <http://bit.ly/22Twpsy>

Vincini, P 2003,
‘The Nature of Situated Learning’
, Innovations in Learning, February, p.1, viewed 14 January 2016,
<http://sites.tufts.edu/ets/files/2012/12/newsletter_feb_20031.pdf>.

Pros:
Easy to Implement
Only requires Student and Teacher
It's how we learn our culture
Cons:
Students are not blank slates
Information can be understood differently by different people - standard transmissionism can lead to mis-understanding of information
Students are prone to “sit and stare, not ask for help, and likely not fully understand” (Venne 1989, p. 66).

The basis of tranmissionist learning is the commonly seen educational method involving transfer of words and ideas from the teacher to the student. The assumption is that the knowledge shared by the teacher has a meaning that is only covered by the words, diagrams, or other media themselves. (Cobb 1988).

History:
The exact starting point for the transmissionist theory of learning is unknown, however we can assume that it had its beginnings when John Locke presented his “Blank Slate Theory” in his treatise “Some Thoughts Concerning Education” (Locke 1854).
Transmissionist
Digital Age Applications
According to Teo (2008, p. 1) the majority of teachers are only using computers to display or transfer existing materials in a purely transmissionist learning model regardless of whether it is best practise or not.

Social Constructivist
This theory believes that learning is an active process in which children build their own understanding based on their prior knowledge (Keesee 2011). It encourages social interaction and contact with more knowledgeable others in order to increase the learning potential of its students.
Social Constructivism was developed by Lev Vygotsky in the early 1900’s however it was not translated into English until after 1960.
History:
Digital age application
This theory is a great addition to a classroom, but should not be used by itself. Using the social constructivist theory alongside other learning theories would be the best way to teach, taking the best parts of each theory to allow all students the best chance to succeed.
Many varied viewpoints fall under the banner of Cognitivism, however common amongst these is the belief that knowledge is organised and stored and that learners are seen as active processors of information. Core to the Cognitivist theory is the process of assimilation and accommodation - how new information is categorised and prior knowledge is adapted. A Cognitive approach involves building upon a student’s schema (internal knowledge structure) of a topic. (Tennyson & Volk 2015)

History:
Cognitivism stems from Gestalt psychology and has been greatly influenced by the approaches of Jean Piaget and William Perry. Dissatisfaction with Behaviourist viewpoints led such developmental psychologists to oppose the focus on ‘passively absorbed‘ observable behaviour and instead explore an approach concerned with ‘actively constructed’ internal mental processes. (Berkely Graduate Division 2016)
Cognitivist Theory
Attachment Theory

Attachment theory is a process of personal development. The process begins by the individual forming an emotional and physical attachment which creates a sense of security and stability. It’s a vital role that contributes in the ability to take risks, explore, grow and develop new skills. (Bretherton 1992, pp. 1-2).
Pros:

Over attachment results into lack of independences, which may also result in long-term cognitive, social, and emotional difficulties.
Cons:
Digital Age
Applications

Multimedia and digital tools that identify and focus on cognitive processes have shown to be effective tools for enhancing student engagement. (BrainPOP Educators 2008)

Attachment theory according to Schore (2001),is a favourable development that develops and shapes in a safe environment where affect commutations can occur between a child and a caregiver/teacher.
This theory is established by teachers in a classroom environment, to create a positive relationship with students. This encourages children to expressively participate with scenes of security.
Children who have a strong attchment tend to have a more open response to peers and achieve more social interation. Secure children are more adaptable in the classroom enviroment, while insecure children you are at more risk of being anti-social, hostile and encounter difficulties in forming relationships with others (Brotherson 2005)
Digital Age Application
Digital Age Application
Behaviourist theory relies on the ability to observe behaviour in order to reinforce/reward the positive and punish/remove the negative, making it difficult to apply in the digital age. Online education in particular is often learner driven, the opposite of behaviourist teachings. While it may still be relevant in early face to face teaching, the lack of flexibility in the behaviourist model is outdated (Shank 1994, pp. 70-71) and increasingly difficult to apply in modern learning.
Pros:
Data is easily observed and collected
Can assist to teach new behaviours or modify others
Easily implemented in classroom situations
Cons:
One size fits all - does not account for individualism or the influence of genetics
Ignores learning which cannot be physically observed
Does not recognise any other style of learning
Behaviourist Theory
Behaviourist theory is based in the notion that learners are born 'tabula rasa' (blank slate) and that behaviour (like learning) can be conditioned through positive and negative reinforcement. Learning is purely biological and predictable. Teachers completely lead learning, with results observable and easily measured (Gould 2009, pp. 7,16).

Based in psychology, notable theorists were Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner.
In the late 1800's Pavlov, with his landmark 'Pavlov's Dogs' research, discovered Classical conditioning. John B. Watson then applied this data to human behaviour. Thorndike and Skinner continued research to discover Operant conditioning and apply Behaviourism directly to learning.
History:
Use a Learning Theory: Behaviorism
(2012) <https://youtu.be/KYDYzR-ZWRQ>
Situational Learning Theory
Pros:
Emphasizes the combination of learning and use, so that learners can think and practice like experts in the field (Vincini 2003, p. 1).
It benefits the learner to actively participate in the learning situations and develop the ability of solving real problems.
It promotes the dialog between learners and realizes an interaction between learners and the situations.
It forms self-reflection, self-cognition, self-planning and self-supervision, and develops skills of adapting, improving, updating and creating situations.

Limitations in implementation of situated learning within the traditional school system.
‘What we learn in one situation we often fail to apply in another’ (Bereiter 1997, p. 8).


The use of situated learning has significant implications for the instructional design of computer-based programs. (Herrington & Oliver, 1995)

Computer-based learning (CBL) provided a more interesting and active learning experience and a greater depth of understanding. (Billett 1994, p. 8)

Digital age application
Cons:
References continued
History:
Attachment theory is the combined work of John Bowlby . Underlying the understanding and theories of ethology, cybernetics, information processing, developmental psychology and psychoanalysts, John Bowlby formulated the basic tenets of the theory. (Petters 2006, p. 1)
Learning theories offer concepts that provide us with a means by which to understand how the human learning process takes place. They offer a foundation on which to build education frameworks and curriculums. This presentation aims to provide a brief overview of some of the most influential learning theories.
Situated learning theory is a learning method means individual acquire professional knowledge in the situation that will be applied to. For instance, bargaining power should be carried out in merchandising location because this skill will be applied to the real market finally.

History:
This theory was developed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in 1990. In their view, learning can not be simply regarded as the abstract or decontextualized knowledge which transferred from an individual to another. It should be a social process and the knowledge is constructed by learners in social contexts.


Attachments help build bonds of trust and security.
Attachments progressively strengthens form infant to adulthood, which is needed for survival and relationship building.
Throughout this presentation six different learning theories have been briefly discussed. Each theory brings with it its own pros and cons, but they each share the same end goal of teaching a new process or new idea to their students.

None of the mentioned learning theories are better then the last; however some are more readily used within Schools and Learning facilities. Each Theory mentioned is from a reputable source and is a professional approach to teaching, whatever the content may be. An educator should always take their students individual needs and situations into account when deciding what method or methods they should use within their classroom.

(McLeod 2007)
beear 2012,'Technical-circuit-board-electronics' [image], Pixabay, viewed 15 January 2016, <https://pixabay.com/en/technical-circuit-board-electronics-647489/>

BlueOlive 2014, 'students-ipad-computer-tablet-girl' [image], Pixabay, viewed 18 January 2016, <https://pixabay.com/en/students-ipad-computer-tablet-girl-703001/>

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Images
Technical-circuit-board-electronics
(2012) <https://pixabay.com/en/technical-circuit-board-electronics-647489/>
Students-computer-young-boy
(2010) <https://pixabay.com/en/students-computer-young-boy-99506/>
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(2009) <https://pixabay.com/en/classroom-student-students-lesson-488375/>

Cry
(n.d.) <http://all-free-download.com/free-photos/download/cry_208356.html>
Classroom
(n.d.) <http://all-free-download.com/free-photos/download/classroom_185901.html>
students-ipad-computer-tablet-girl
(2014) <https://pixabay.com/en/students-ipad-computer-tablet-girl-703001/>
speakers-speaker-training-lecture
(2014) <https://pixabay.com/en/speakers-speaker-training-lecture-414560/>

Transmissionist
2016 <http://bit.ly/1nEYbc1>
School-classroom-boys-girls
2013 https://pixabay.com/en/school-classroom-boys-girls-79612
class-classroom-professor-student
2014 https://pixabay.com/en/class-classroom-professor-student-377117/
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stokpic (2011) 'Children-school-laughing-fun'

[image], Pixabay, viewed 15 January 2016, <https://pixabay.com/en/children-school-laughing-fun-602967/>



Hands holding jigsaw
(n.d) <http://all-free-download/hands_holding_jigsaw_202588.html>
School-teacher-professor-students
(2010) <https://pixabay.com/en/school-teacher-professor-students-1019989/>
Children-school-laughing-fun
(2011) <https://pixabay.com/en/children-school-laughing-fun-602967/>
Images continued
Full transcript