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Transcript of Abyssal Zone
It is highly pressurized. There is no rainfall or wind, as it is underwater. The geology of this biome is very unique. The floor is a sandy bottom, but on the ocean floor there are hydrothermal vents. These are geysers on the sea floor that continuously gush super-hot mineral rich water. Plants can not survive in this biome because of the lack of sunlight, nutrition and oxygen available. It is surprising to many people that animals can survive in this biome. The animals who live there are very unique. Because food is scarce, they have large gaps, so they can eat any food possible. Examples of the animals who live in the abyssal zone include the Anglerfish, Deep-sea Jellyfish, Venus’s Flower Baskets, Brittle Stars, Rat Tails, Deep-sea Shrimp, Deep-sea Anglers, Abyssal Sea Cucumbers, Stalked Crinoids, Brotulids, Tripod Fish, Lampshells, Tube Worms, Deep-sea Swimming Sea Cucumber, Sea Snails, Abyssal Octopus, Deep-sea Eel, and Gulper Eel. The behavioral adaptations of these animals is that they tend to move very slowly. The physical adaptations of the animals in this biome are very unique. They usually have a huge jaw to be able to sift through the sand and catch food. Some have bioluminescence to be able to catch prey. They are usually grey or black to blend in, and are not streamlined to convserve energy. Many are blind and reproduce slowly. A symbiotic relationship of this biome would be the Anglerfish. There is a certain type of bacteria that bioluminesces and the fish uses it to see and attrack other prey, and the bacteria has a home. The bacteria form the base of the food chain. They get energy from the deep sea hydrothermal vents where they mediate chemical reactions. Tubeworms, eels, and shrimps are some examples of animals in this biome that survive off of this bacteria. They in turn feed other animals. Also, dead animals float down to the bottom of the ocean, and provide nutrients to animals. Challenges faced by this biome is that it is highly pressurized, and extremely cold. Also, no plants live in this biome, and food is sometimes scarce. Hydrothermal vents are geysers on the sea floor that continuously spew super hot, mineral rich water. Certain types of bacteria thrive here, which helps support life in this biome. They form when the earths plates move apart and create cracks and crevices in the ocean floor. When seawater seeps through these cracks, it is heated and rises out of the vents. These vents are believed to play an important role in the oceans temperature, chemistry, and circulation patterns.
http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/deepsea/level-2/geology/vents.html Chemosynthesis is the process where certain microbes create energy by mediating chemical reactions that occur where chemicals come out of hydrothermal vents. Hydrothermal Vents information: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/explorer/concepts/chemosynthesis.html Chemosynthesis information: The End! By Diana Grindberg