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Mrs. T-Z: Primate Evolution

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Jennifer Thomas

on 15 February 2011

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Transcript of Mrs. T-Z: Primate Evolution

PRIMATE EVOLUTION Primate Adaptation
& Evolution Human Ancestry Primates are a group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans. PRIMATE CHARACTERISTICS:
Dense hair or fur covering
Live young
Infant dependence
Flexible hips and joints
largest brain of any terrestrial mammal
Common social primate traits:
Social life
Observation and imitation
Pecking order
They are more unique than all that though!

They are unique amongst all mammals...
-Nails rather than claws
-Binocular vision
-Color vision Origins
Based on fossil evidence, comparative
anatomical, genetic, and biochemical studies,
primates are classified into 2 groups.
STREPSIRRHINES (lemurs, lorises etc)
HAPLORHINES (tarsiers)
This lineage led to the Anthropoids (monkeys), then
the Hominoids (gibbons,orangutans,apes), then
the Hominids (humans)

SEE PAGE 423 FOR A GREAT GRAPHIC Strepsirrhines:
-small primates
-large eyes
-Forests of Africa and SE Asia
-fossils date to 55mya
All other living primates are in the
-Includes tarsiers & Anthropoids
-Anthropoids are the larger subgroup and include:
Hominoids and Old and New World Monkeys
Hominoids include apes and humans.

Confused yet?
-More complex brains
-more upright
in comparison to strepsirrhines

Include the monkeys!
-New World Monkeys
-all arboreal
-prehensile tails
-marmosets & spider monkeys
-oldest fossil=35 mya

-Old World Monkeys
-larger, no prehensile tails
-diverse group, land and tree monkeys
-oldest fossil=20 mya

Old and New World monkeys evolved independently
of each other due to geographic isolation. Old World are
more recent.

Include the apes & humans!
-Hominoids is a subgroup of Arthropoids
-includes the apes and humans

--include orangutans, chimps, bonobos, gorillas
-no tails, strong muscles for navigation
-arboreal or terrestrial
-large brain due to social interactions

-We'll get to that later... It is suggested that monkeys,
apes, and humans share a common
anthropoid ancestor based upon all the
similarities. The oldest anthropoid fossils
date to 40 mya. Hominoids evolved in Asia & Africa during a period of global cooling. (changes in vegetation occurred). The probable order of evolution is:
1) Gibbons
2) Orangutans
3) African apes, gorllas, and chimpanzees
4) Humans (data suggests that our closest common ancestor is the chimpanzee) HOMINIDS:
-contains 2 lineages (humans and chimps)
that diverged between 5-8 mya.
-Primates that can walk upright
-Few fossils to support this
but there is a lot of DNA data
*More fossils are being found as we speak!
-Divergence occurred because of
environmental changes that selected
for bipedalism.
-These individuals then lived to produce offspring
and passed on their traits. BIPEDALISM
-Walking on two legs
-Increases speed
-hands are free (for tools?)
-led to differences in skull types
-opening in skull for spine at base
of skull (in apes it is in back)
Early hominids
-An early hominid that lived in Africa
and possessed both apelike and humanlike
Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 - ? mya
A. anamensis 4.2 - 3.9
A. afarensis 4.2 - 2.5 LUCY
A. bahrelghazali 3.5 - 3.0
A. africanus 3.5 - 2.5
P. aethiopicus 2.7 - 2.3
A. garhi 2.5 - ?
P. boisei 2.3 - 1.3
P. robustus 2.0 - 1.0
They all share:
Bipedalism/ Tools/ Language
-Discovered first Australopithecine
fossil-A.africanus-2.8 mya
-Discovered LUCY in East Africa-dated
3.2 mya-A.afarensis (new species!)
-4 other fossil species of Australopithecine
have been found. All date between 2.5 and 4 mya.
Australopithecines disappear from the fossil record
Homo habilis (2.0 – 1.6mya)
H. rudolfensis (2.4-1.6mya)
H. erectus (1.9-27kyBP)
H. heidelbergensis (800-100kyBP)
H. neanderthalensis (300-30kyBP)
H. sapiens (130kyBP – present) Major Homo advances:
Brain size
Better bipedalism
Fire (H. erectus)
Tools (
Oldowon (H. habilis)
Acheulean: stone tools (H. erectus)
Mousterian (H. heidelbergensis)
Solutrean (H. sapiens)
Built shelters (H. heidelbergensis)
Clothing (H. neandertalensis)
Language (Neandertals?) BIG IDEA
Hominoids are primates that include
gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, gibbons,
orangutans, and humans.
Hominids only include the chimpanzee and
human lineages. Australopithecine fossils tell us that bipedalism evolved first,
but when did large brain size develop? Evidence for larger brain
is found in tools & culture. 1964- Mary & Louis Leakey found skull portions
in Tanzania with tool fragments nearby. They named
their find "Homo habilis" (Handy human). Radiometric
dating indicates an age of 1.5-2.5 mya. Either H. habilis or another species, H. ergaster,
gave rise to a new species about 1.5 mya. The new
species was called Homo erectus (upright human).
H. erectus had a larger brain and more humanlike
face than previous fossils. Hunting tools and charred hearth remains have been found at fossil dig sites with H. erectus fossils. FROM AUSTRALOPITHECINES
TO HOMO SAPIENS... H. erectus migrated from Africa 1 mya
and spread through Africa & Asia & perhaps
Europe. Extinct 130,000 years ago. Possibly
gave rise to more human looking hominids. There are many hypotheses about how modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved. The most popular hypothesis is described here.
-H. sapiens appeared in fossil record 100,000-500,000 years ago in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia
-The forms that precede H. Sapiens are either H. antecessor
or H. heidelbergensis More fossil & DNA evidence is needed to determine
the direct ancestor of modern humans. H. sapiens fossils show an increased
braincase with volumes of 1000 to 1650 cm cubed (within modern human range),
Less prominent browridges, more prominent foreheads, & smaller teeth.
What about the Neandertals?
-Lived 35,000-100,000 years ago
-A sister species to Homo Sapiens
-Brains = in size to H. sapiens
-Larger faces, thicker bones
-Used tools, fire, had art and burial grounds
-Perhaps language Who are the Cro-Magnon's ?
-A type of H. Sapien similar to Neandertals but not directly related. Appear in fossil record 35,000-40,000 years ago.
-Used tools, fire, art and language. CULTURE Let's review evolution: To sum it all up Stop at
5 minutes :) As you go through the
Prezi, take notes of importance. All you will be handing in are the answers to the questions at the end of the Prezi. Questions (This is due on the next school day) :
1) Draw a map that shows one possible
pathway for the evolutionary history (phylogeny)
2) You are a famous primatologist. An unidentified, complete fossil arrives at your lab. What observations would you make to determine if it's a primate fossil?
3)Why was bipedalism so important to the evolutions of hominids?
4) Draw a map that shows one possible pathway for the evolutionary history of HOMINIDS.
5) What is the "Out of Africa" hypothesis?
6) What are your thoughts about the information presented? This is not necessarily my idea on where
humans are heading...it's just kind of funny :)
Full transcript