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THE CUBAN REVOLUTION

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Brad O'Neill

on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of THE CUBAN REVOLUTION

Forces leading to Revolution
Fulgencio Batista was the previously elected president of Cuba from 1940 to 1944.
In 1952, Batista reran for president.
He reaslised he was going to lose and cancelled the elections.
This left the people of Cuba appalled, as the people preferred democracy.
Fidel Castro was Likely to win the election.
Castro planned to bring down Batista, and thus initiated the revolution.
Castro and His Leadership in Revolutionary Cuba
Key Features Of Revolutionary Cuba and Impacts of Revolution
THE CUBAN REVOLUTION
& Fidel Castro's Role
Brad O'Neill & Bronte Wright
Map of Caribbean Sea, showing Cuba's relevent location to particularly Mexico, South America, and Florida.
Assault on the Moncada Barracks
On 26th July, Fidel Castro and 138 rebels launched an attack operation on the Moncada Barracks

The attack however was a catastrophe from the beginning. Due to the larger number of soldiers within the base and a series of unfortunate events, a large amount of the rebels were caught and massacred.

Fidel, his brother Raul and the other remaining rebels were apprehended over the following weeks and put into gaol but were not executed.
Castro's Release
In 1955, Fidel and his brother Raul were released under amnesty due to international pressure.
both of them escaped to Mexico.
a revolutionary group was made which was named the 26th of July Movement.
History Will Absolve Me Trial
On 16th October Fidel Castro was on trial for the assault on the Moncada Barracks.
In front of the court, Fidel Castro delivered a four hour speech in his defence, in which he justified his actions, and told of his plans for Cuba in the future.

This speech outlined Batista as a villain, and contained doses of criticism on the health system, schooling, reading, writing and ability.
During the time period the speech was delivered, there were “700,000 Cuban without work” and 30% were unable to write their name.

He went on to explain the “five revolutionary laws” that he wanted to implement into Cuba.

Castro gained a large amount of popularity and Dishonour! the public standing of Batista was harshly diminished
the court was convinced to preserve his life, and many of those captive. Fidel Castro and his brother were sentenced to 15 years in prison.
This speech however made him a semi-hero to the public of Cuba, and became the legacy of the 26th of July Movement.

Fidel Castro's Background and Reasons for Revolution
Fidel Castro was born August 13, 1926 in Cuba, and was the political leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008
Fidel Castro grew up in south-eastern Cuba and had six siblings, with Raul, one of his brothers, who later became Fidel’s chief associate during the Cuban revolution and other affairs.
He attended the School of Law of the University of Havana, where Fidel focused mainly on politics.
joined the reformist Cuban People’s Party. became their forerunner for a seat in the House of Representatives in the June 1952 elections.
Fulgencio Batista overthrew President Carlos Socarras and cancelled the election.
Fidel took him to court but legal action was unsuccessful
Started to formulate a plan for an armed revolution


Right: Young Fidel Castro being questioned by Cuban officials after the assault on Moncada Barracks.
The “five revolutionary laws" -

These were;
- Reinstate the 1940 Cuban Constitution
- Land rights reformed
- Industrial workers to receive 30% share of profits from the company
- Sugar workers to receive 55% of profits from the company
- Confiscation of holdings and prosecution of those found guilty of fraud under previous administrative powers.
Return Of Fidel Castro

On December 2, 1956, Fidel Castro, and 80 other men arrived on the East Coast of Cuba after sailing from Mexico.
hey were ambushed by Batista’s men and all except Fidel, Raul, Che, and nine others were killed or captured.
Castro and his 11 remaining men fled into the Sierra Maestra where they used guerrilla warfare against Batista’s men.
In an attempt to destroy Fidel Castro’s band of revolutionaries, Batista planned Operation Verano.
Castro’s forces had grown greatly, with growing support from Cuba and internationally.

Batista planned to blockade all incoming and outgoing weapons and resources and attack the forces. However this resulted in defeat, leaving the Cuban Army demoralised.

Fidel Castro viewed this as a victory and sought to initiate his own offensive move on the already diminished Batista forces.

The battle at Santa Clara was Castro's final offensive move, which resulted in the rebels taking control of the garrison at Santa Clara. After the garrison was taken, Batista flees the country to the Dominican Republic.

Fidel Castro takes control of power on January 9th 1959.

Jan. 1, 1959 -- Dictator Fulgencio Batista flees Cuba and Fidel Castro's rebels take power

President Fulgencio Batista of Cuba leaves for Domican Republic.

Takes with him his chief military aides

Batista's two youngest sons had flown to Idlewild earlier on what was called a "sightseeing tour".

Castro's rebel forces gave a glowing but quite contrary account of the Battle of Santa Clara and ended with the news that rebel leaders were heading without let or hindrance towards Havana to take over the Government

March 19, 1962 -- Food rationing begins in Cuba.
Cuban families rely, for their food intake, on the distribution system,
The system establishes the rations each person is allowed to buy
such as light bulbs and other home supplies.
Products included in the libreta vary according to age and gender.
Adults above 65 years are entitled to different allowances
Granting a special diet requires presentation of a medical certificate which confirms the health condition and what product requirements this condition has.
Feb, 7, 1962 -- Washington bans all Cuban imports.
Cuba allied with the Soviet Union.
Cold War magnified its perceived importance.
Washington reduced Cuban sugar import quotas in July 1960.
Washington also pressed its allies to impose sanctions.
Intensify Cuba’s reliance on the Soviet Union.
In 1992, Congress banned American subsidiaries from doing business in Cuba and in 1996.
it penalized foreign firms that trafficked in expropriated U.S. property. Executives from such companies even were banned from traveling to America.

Cuba was declared a socialist state by Fidel Castro, removing multiparty elections.
In June 1960, Cuba's sugar import quota was reduced by 7,000,000 tons.
Health care and education were socialized which improved them greatly,
Over one million Cubans later migrated to the U.S., forming anti-Castro community in Miami, Florida, actively supported and funded by successive U.S. administrations.

April 16, 1961 -- Castro declares Cuba a socialist state.
Soviets had openly been sending weaponry to Cuba, including surface-to-air anti-aircraft missiles (SAMs).
Kennedy had said he would not protest but warned that if the Soviets ever introduced offensive weapons, 'the gravest issues would arise.'
Kennedy assembled a small group that came to be called the Executive Committee of the National Security Council - or ExComm for short.
Kennedy had had to make a decision about a CIA plan to land Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs, in Cuba
hope that these exiles would overthrow Cuba's Communist government, headed by Fidel Castro.
October 1962 -- President Kennedy blockades Cuba to force removal of Soviet nuclear-armed missiles; Soviets agree within days and Kennedy agrees privately not to invade Cuba.
The impacts of the Cuban Revolution Castro’s taking of power and control in Cuba was influential in the shaping Cuba, its place on the international scale.

In the Cold War as Fidel Castro brought in communism to Cuba, which the United States believed communism to be a threat to capitalism. The US introduced the trade embargo against Cuba destroying Cuban economy.

The Bay of Pigs was an incident to remove the Castro government and replace it with a pro-capitalism government. Due to Castro’s embracing of communism, the USSR sent missiles to allowing them to launch missiles at the US very quickly before the US could react. This resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

All this happened, from one man and his beliefs, which over though a government, and changed Cuba forever,

- “I know that imprisonment will be harder for me than it has ever been for anyone, filled with cowardly threats and hideous cruelty. But I do not fear prison, as I do not fear the fury of the miserable tyrant who took the lives of 70 of my comrades. Condemn me. It does not matter. History will absolve me.”
Final paragraph from the reconstructed History Will absolve me speech spoken by Fidel Castro during his trial for the assault on the moncada barracks.
- Image of newspaper after castro successfully wins the revolution. Castro’s regime beings to dissolve the old capitalist system. He also appoints Che Guevara to his government.


A Cuban revolution propaganda poster from the time shortly after Castro's Victory
Sources & References
C. Michael Hogan, 2013, Caribbean Sea, The Encyclopedia Of Earth, http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150930/ Accessed 2/06/2014
Christopher Minster, The Cuban Revolution, About.com, http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/historyofthecaribbean/p/08cubanrevo.htm Accessed 28/05/2014
Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fidel Castro, Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98822/Fidel-Castro Accessed 28/05/2014
Christopher Minster, Cuban Revolution: Assault on the Moncada Barracks, About.com, http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/historyofthecaribbean/a/09moncada.htm Accessed 28/05/2014
< http://www.impactnews.ro/Green/FOTOGALERIE:-Fidel-Castro,-la-86-de-ani.-Via%C5%A3a-%C3%AEn-imagini-a-liderului-anti-american-79164> Accessed 2/06/2014
History Will Absolve Me, Wikipedia, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_Will_Absolve_Me> Accessed 30/052014
1997, Andrew Paul Booth, History Will Absolve Me, Castro Internet Archive, http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/archive/castro/1953/10/16.htm Accessed 2/06/2014
Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fidel Castro, Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98822/Fidel-Castro Accessed 3/06/2014
http://www.theguardian.com/world/1959/jan/02/cuba1
http://worldhistoryproject.org/1961/5/1/fidel-castro-declares-cuba-a-socialist-state
http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/the-pointless-cuba-embargo-7834
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationing_in_Cuba
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/kennedy_cuban_missile_01.shtml
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