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Transcript of Groundwater
which means easy to pass through. PERMEABLE , Eventually, the water will hit a road block, so to speak. Layers that contain materials such as clay and granite make it difficult for water to pass through. These are called
materials. IMPERMEABLE GROUNDWATER Think of impermeable materials as stop signs. Water cannot pass through the "stop sign," so it causes a "traffic jam." In other words, the water has no place to go so it collects and fills up. When it fills up completely, it is now called the ZONE OF SATURATION . At the very top of the zone of saturation is an area called the . If you know where the water table is located, you'll know how far to dig to find the groundwater. WATER TABLE What about the layers above the water table? Obviously the water got down to the water table through them, so don't they contain moisture? The answer is yes. These layers DO have water, but they are not saturated. They are called the . UNSATURATED ZONE ? So now that we know where this groundwater is located, what should we do with it? AQUIFERS There is a special name for the underground layers of sediment or rock that contain water. They are called
. There are many different sizes of aquifers. Many aquifers are very small. Others are as large as multiple states. One example is the Ogallala aquifer, which is located underneath Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kasas, Colorado, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. With all of this fresh water underground, it is no surprise that we want to use it. But how do we get to it? We Dig Wells... are deep holes dug into the ground in order to reach groundwater located in the water table. WELLS When a well goes dry, this means that it is no longer in the zone of saturation. This becomes an expensive problem since the well will have to be dug deeper in order to find the water table. Sometimes, a brand new well will need to be dug. ARTESIAN WELLS Sometimes, water in an aquifer will be trapped between two impermeable layers. This causes great pressure to occur, and thus the water breaks through the top layer. When this happens, the pressure allows water to escape. This is called an . ARTESIAN WELL THE END