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Timeline of Disunion 1860-1861

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Megan Quinn

on 5 December 2010

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Transcript of Timeline of Disunion 1860-1861

Timeline of Disunion:
1860-1861
By: Sahar Sadoughi and
Megan Quinn Election of 1860 Confederate States
Of America Formed: 1861 Southe Carolina
Fires on Fort
Sumter:1861 The C.S.A. Included Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia Kentucky and Missouri were considered by the C.S.A to be states. Kentucky did not secede, but a faction known as the Rusellville Convention, formed a Confederate Government of Kentucky which was recognized by the C.S.A. as a member state. A Missouri convention voted to stay in the Union but rejected waging war on the Confederacy. The pro-south governor of Missouri was unhappy with this, and secretly confided with C.S.A. President Jefferson Davis to use the Missouri State Militia for Confederate purposes. The Union army stopped these activities and the Missouri state legislature was forced to flee to Arkansas. The United States place a provisional government in Missouri. Missouri's government in exile was counted as the thirteenth state in the Confederacy. The Seal of the Confederate States of America Key Points:
The secession occurred four days after the election of President Lincoln.
Lame duck President Buchanon was unable to use any necessary force to keep the 11 seceding states in the Union.
The North, tied economically to the South, did not initially want to fight to keep the states in the union.
On a scale of one to ten, this event was given a 10 for importance in bringing about the Civil War. Who was involved:
President Buchanon: Aging president of the United States when the Confederacy was formed. He could not use all of the force necessary to keep the states in the Union because of the economic ties that the North and South had and also because the small standing army of only fifteen thousand was being used to defend the west from Indians. In late December after 1860, Buchanon replaced all of the southern sympathizers in his cabinet with nationalist Democrats. Before he left office, almost all American Arsenals and Forts in the South were lost.
Jefferson Davis: Elected to a six year term as President of the Confederacy on November 6, 1861. Just like Lincoln and Buchanon, he initially wanted peace with the Union. In march 1861 he set up a Peace Commission for the sole purpose of resolving the issues between the Confederacy and the Union. His most brilliant decision as president was the appointment of General Robert E. Lee. Key Points:
The Democratic Party, the last of the national parties, split along sectional lines with Douglas being the nominee of the Northern Democrats and John C. Breckenridge being the nominee for the Southern Democrats. A third party was formed from the former Democrats, the Constitutional Union Party. They nominated John Bell.
Lincoln, the Republican nominee, won in a landslide in the electoral college. However, he only recieved 46% of the popular vote.
The north was strongly Republican, the South Democratic.
The South feared a Republican victory because, although Linoln promised to protect slavery where it already existed, he was against its extension. South Carolina threatened secession if Lincoln was elected. Unlike his opponents, Lincoln gave no political speeches during the election of 1860. Instead, he relied on the enthusiasm of the Republican Party. The Republican Party's distribution of campaign literature was much higher than that of all of Lincoln's components combined. In this Pro-Lincoln political cartoon, Lincoln is portrayed telling his opponents that they need a good "bat" to have a good hit. Each opponent's bat represents their platform. Lincoln's reads "Equal Rights and free terittories" while Breckenridge's says "slavery-extension," Douglas' says "non-intervention" and Bell;s says "fusion." Major Players:
Abraham Lincoln: The candidate of the Republican Party. Lincoln ran on a platform against the extension of slavery but for its protection in the territories where it already existed. He also supported the imposition of protective tariffs, a Homestead Act granting free farmland to Western settlers, and the funding of a trans-continental railroad.
Stephen A. Douglas: Supported Popular Sovereignty regarding slavery in ther territories, alienating Southern Democrats. He was supported strongly by poor farmers and the Catholic Irish. He recieved 2nd place in the popular vote, with 29%, but finished fourth in the electoral college with only 12 votes. After losing the election, he urged the South to acquiesce to Lincoln's election and strove to help preserve the Union through compromise. As late as 1860, he wrote to Alexander H. Stephens, a politician from Georgia, in support of the idea of annexing Mexico as a slave state to appease the South. After war broke out, Douglas was sent by his one-time presidential opponent Lincoln on a speaking tour of the border states to promote the idea of unionism.
John C. Breckenridge: The candidate of the Southern Branch of the Democratic Party. He supported slavery. He came in fourth in the popular vote, with 18.1% and finished second in the electoral college because he recieved the support of border states Maryland and Delaware in addition to that of the deep south.
John Bell: Constitutional Union Candidate. He won 13% of the popular vote with 39% of his support coming from the South. The Constitutional Union platform that Bell ran on was extremely simple. It was to recognize no other political principle than the Constitution, the Union, and the Enforcement of the Laws Key Points:
The first battle of the Civil War.
Before South Carolina fired on Fort sumter, the North had wanted to allow the Confederate States to secede in peace.
Because the South made the first move of aggression, it made them the agressors. This drove some of the border states to side with the Union. A Picture of the officers at Fort Sumter. Major Anderson, the commanding officer who refused to give up the Fort, sits second from the left. Major Players:
General Beauregard of the Confederate Army: Was in charge of the Army in Charleston, South Carolina. He demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter and, after negotiations with Captain Robert Anderson failed, began a 34 hour bombardment of the Fort which ended with Anderson's surrender of the fort.
Major Robert Anderson: Commander of Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. He was a slave-holder, but remained loyal to the union when South Carolina seceded. He was General Beauregard's former professor at West Point. He refused demands of Governor Pickens and General Beauregard to surrender Fort Sumter.
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