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The Cold War


Keith Zhang

on 22 April 2015

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Transcript of The Cold War

Essential Questions
What were the causes of the Cold War?
What was the dominant US foreign policy during the Cold War?
What led to the end of the Cold War?
The Cold War
By Keith Zhang, Matt Krzystyniak, Adithya Pai, Nikita Karpunin, and Peter Kirkpatrick
Thesis Statement
Vocabulary Terms
Sputnik 1- First satellite in space

Duck and Cover Drills- In case of nuclear war people practiced these drills

Berlin Blockade- Blockading French, English, and American zones in Berlin

Brinkmanship- Pushing dangerous events to disaster in order to achieve an advantage.

Satellite Nations- Nations controlled by the USSR

Six Day War- Skirmish between Egypt and Israel that could have sparked world war.

Communism-Where everyone has the same possessions, same wage, and same social order.

Solidarity- Mutual agreement and support.

NATO nations- Organization to prevent nuclear war, and protect its members.

Warsaw pact- Soviet organization for Eastern European countries to help each other

Revolutions of 1989- Revolutions which overthrew the communist states in various Central and Eastern European countries.

Proliferation- Spread of Nuclear Weapons
People and Places to Know
John F. Kennedy
Dwight Eisenhower
Lyndon B. Johnson
Fidel Castro
Joseph Stalin
Cuban Exiles
Neil Armstrong
Joseph McCarthy
General Tunner
Nikita Khrushchev
General Westmoreland
During the Cold War, the United States claimed the responsibility of preventing communism from spreading, and in doing so became a dominant world power during the second half of the 20th century.

• Oct. 4, 1957- The race begins when the Soviet Union launches the first satellite, Sputnik 1, into space. This was a shock to many Americans who did not want the Soviets to control space, who could potentially bomb them. Funding for gathering Soviet intelligence and building American space craft became popular

• 1958-On Jan. 23rd, the US launches its own satellite which successfully gains Soviet intelligence, and NASA is formed on Oct. 1st

• 1959-1960- Many more successful satellite operations conducted by both US and the USSR. Competition grows as they come closer to success on spying, locating weather patterns, and coming very near the sun and moon.

• 1961- On April 12th, the first man, Yuri Gagarin, is in space. On May 5th, the first American Alan B. Shepard enters space

• Jul. 20, 1969- Neil Armstrong is the first man on the moon, the space race ends and America comes out on top for successful putting man on the moon

Fun Fact: the first living thing in space was a dog named Laika launched by the Soviets on Nov. 3, 1957
Here are the things that wouldn't go into bibme



Marshall Plan and the Berlin Airlift
Korean War
The arms race was a event in history in which the USSR and the USA competed to make the most powerful nuclear weapons in order to gain power and leverage against their enemies.
The result was that the United States had a very powerful arsenal of nuclear weapons and was seen by the rest of the world as two countries not to oppose. The result was that both countries had very powerful nuclear weapons that could destroy the world, which would be see as
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Vietnam War
26th Amendment
The Fall of the Berlin Wall
The End of The Cold War
Marshall Plan --- loaned $ to anti-communist nations to rebuild after WW2 so they wouldn't fall to Communism.
The Berlin Airlift --- US and Britain airlifted goods to Berlin which was blockaded by the USSR (This was known as the
Berlin blockade
Détente is a term used to express the minimization in tension between the Soviet Union and the United States of America in the 1960's

This relaxation resulted in agreements that attempted to limit
and ensure that no panic like the Cuban Missile Crisis would happen again. This allowed the US to become an international authority on weapons of mass destruction.
Timeline of Detente-

1963 - hot-line established after Cuban Missile Crisis

1963 - both agreed to only use underground tests for nuclear explosions

1969 - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) start

1972 - Richard Nixon, USA president, visited Moscow

1973 - Leonid Brezhnev, USSR leader, visited Washington
1974 - Nixon visited Moscow again
Salt- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks.
This limited the number of nuclear weapons a country could have and how powerful the bombs were.
The Iron Curtain
The US, South Korea, and the United Nations engaged in a bloody three year war against North Korea, China, and Russia
It was a bloody conflict that resulted in a tactical stalemate Korea remained split in half by the 38th parallel
A White House political scandal that was brought forward in the 1972 presidential campaign, due to a break-in at the Democratic party headquarters at the Watergate apartment-office complex in Washington, D.C., and with Congressional hearings, brought the resignation of President Nixon in 1974.

With Ford stepping in as president he pardoned Nixon and people that fled the Vietnam draft to Canada.
In doing this he helped calm down the Watergate scandal and replace order.
Lastly, the scandal helped restore faith in the government that it can resolve political problems quickly, under pressure and continue as thee world power.
Truman Doctrine
Arms Race
Space Race
• The USSR transported nuclear missiles to Cuba that could destroy major U. S. cities in seconds, with Cuba 90 miles away from the United States. The U.S. blockaded and negotiated with Cuba • This event lasted 13 days and proved that the US military and government was strong enough to successfully stop a nuclear attack. The US government also had the foreign power to persuade a hostile country and prevent a nuclear war. Americans practiced
duck and cover
drills in case of attack.
The 26th amendment moved the voting age to 18 from 21.

Due to the use of 18 year old's in Vietnam, people pushed for voting laws at an earlier age.

All this let America expand intellectually since children were discussing politics at an earlier age, bringing fresher ideas, especially due to major political topics being discussed such as the Watergate Scandal,
Six Day War,
and the Cold War.
Both the USSR and the US started to build rockets and satellites to enter and function in space to gain power over each other with the advantage of space. The United States was the second country to function in space when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon on July 20th 1969. The USSR released
Sputnik 1
first though.
The Space Race proved to the rest of the world and the Communists that the U.S. were aggressive and innovative, could beat the Communists in a technological race and now could function in space. This strengthen the foreign view of our military and government.
The Fall of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union was a strong nation that came apart after a series of revolutions and rebellions against
-The Soviet Union -made of modern day Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
When it fell, it left America as the dominant world power in the late 1900s

-Gorbachev tried to reform the Soviet state, but his efforts were a failure; rather than save the Soviet system, he sped its decease. This lead to the iron curtain breaking apart and several rebellions against communist rule.
Fight between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (the Northern Communists) and non-communist South Vietnam. Following the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. provided aid to South Vietnam and their leader, Diem, making it officially a war between the U.S. and Communists. Ho Chi Minh started a group of rebels and captured the Northern City of Hanoi, and Southern Vietnam opposed and tried to form a non-communist nation. The United States decided to fight with force and sent many troops out into the Vietnam Jungles, and 60,000 died. They were very ill prepared in the jungle, and since the Vietnam Congress had the advantage of a complex underground tunnel system, knowledge of the geography, and many of the civilians on their side, it was inevitable that the U.S. lost.
The Truman Doctrine was seen as
a way to help stall Soviet power.
Detente and SALT
The Soviet Union expanded by
satellite states,
countries that were taken over by
Bay of Pigs Invasion
It cut these states off from the "Western
World" by an "Iron Curtain" of power.
• The United States government and CIA planned to stop communism in the Western Hemisphere by invading and controlling Cuba
• The 1400 Cuban Exiles they trained were easily destroyed by Castro
Proved that the United States was ready to fight Communism with force and military power, as show in Vietnam and Korea.
The first armed conflict with
Communism was seen as a threat to "Western" [American] ideals.
John F. Kennedy proposed that America should follow a policy of trying to "contain" communism within it's current "sphere."
This policy became known as Containment, and was the dominant foreign policy during the Cold War
-Communists began a rebellion against the governments of Greece and Turkey.
-Aid was sent to successfully stop the rebels.
-This foreign policy of sending aid to stop the spread of Communism became known as the Truman Doctrine.

The Berlin Wall stood about three decades until the wall was torn down by civilians.
Several times people in the Communist countries rose up against the Communist system but they ultimately failed.
In 1989 the first free labor union was founded in the communist Poland. The end of the communist system had begun.
The Soviet Union could control their satellites but with the new leader Gorbachev, their politics changed in 1984.
The reforms in the Soviet Union also had its effects on the other communist countries, especially in Poland and Hungary.
Foreign Policy...
This policy greatly influenced America in the years to come
(ex. McCarthyism, Truman Doctrine, Vietnam War)
Senator Joseph McCarthy accused over 200 people of being supporters of communism bringing about a fear in the people.
American personnel training Exiles in geurilla tactics
How were the Vietnam and Korean War similar and different
What's the Significance of Vietnam
Space race timeline

After the 60,000 American deaths, national support for the military and governmental actions overseas went down significantly. Americans lost morale and feelings of Nationalism and Militarism, and the economy was damaged by the unemployed soldiers after the war
Communism vs. Democracy
Happened in Foreign Countries that were divided in two (democratic south and communist north)
Followed Truman Doctrine
The US did not win a clear victory in either
The fear of the domino effect caused both

Vietnam became 1 country again, Korea did not
Korea was tactical stalemate while in Vietnam US lost
Korea was mostly ignored, while the Vietnam War was widely debated
Geurilla tactics were used in Vietnam
The end of the Cold War was led by a series of rebellions against communist rule and expansion called the
Rebellions of 1989
These countries included Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary. Also, a failed attempt to invade Afghanistan led to an eventual downfall of the USSR.

Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power during this time and allows Hungary to continue elections of taking down Austrian-Hungarian borders.
Communist countries and their civilians start to travel East in attempts to gain liberation.
Berlin Wall
Divided Germany in half
East: Communist, Soviet, West: Democratic, NATO
Highly guarded to prevent escape
Review of Essential Questions
What were the causes of the Cold War?
The Iron Curtain was a cause because of the isolation to western civilization making communism the only form of government known to the sattellite states.
The Berlin Wall was cause due to its restriction of East Berlin and West Berlin - a physical "iron curtain"
Berlin Airlift was a way to fight communism by providing resources and carepackages to Western Berlin; the non-communistic side of Germany.
Marshall Plan was a way to combat communism indirectly by giving the materials and money to boost the economy of European countries in poverty, to who communism was a relief to their depression.
McCarthyism raised a nation wide fear of Communism
Power struggle after WW2 inevitably lead to the Cold War as a competition of technology, power, and influence
What lead to the End of the Cold War
Fall of the Berlin Wall-ended iron curtain and Soviet influence in Satellite States
Fall of the USSR- left U.S. as only remaining world Power
Failed invasion of Afghanistan/ rebellion of USSR- lead to an end of Communist influence
Detente and SALT- ended dispute or possible nuclear war with USSR
Watergate and Vietnam lead to a morale decline of nationalism and faith in government within the U.S.
The Cold War was an inevitable power struggle between Democracy (backed by the U.S.) and Communism (backed by USSR)
What was the dominant US foreign policy during the Cold War?
The Truman Doctrine was a way to stall the spread of communism in Greece and Turkey by providing care packages of money and aid to stop communist rebels.
Containment - This was the idea of containing communism
Space race/ Arms race caused massive tensions between the US and USSR, space was a strategic advantage for both sides to drop weapons on the enemy and gain information.
26th Amendment- spread democracy within the U.S.
Marshal Plan - This was meant to halt the spread of communism by loaning money for countries to rebuild after WW2
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
Vietnam and Korean War - These two wars were the last resort to ending communism, violence.
During the Cold War, the United States claimed the responsibility of preventing communism from spreading, and in doing so became a dominant world power during the second half of the 20th century.
Overall, the dominant foreign policy was to avoid direct conflict if possible, but otherwise take whatever means necessary to spread democracy and stop communism.
Many of these events increased tensions between the US and USSR, and created a fear of communism.
Full transcript