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Lakes and Ponds
Transcript of Lakes and Ponds
~There are also artificial lakes formed by humans used for power, damns, recreation, irrigation and reservations. Cattails are an excellent example of plant adaptation.
They grow along the edge of the pond and root themselves deep into the soil to hold together the moist earth around it.
Their strong roots enable them to hold in water and nutrients in place and keep them from receding. Plant Adaptations Water lilies, Yellow Pond lilies, and Pondweed are also good examples of plants that adapt to life in lakes.
The leaves of these plants are very broad, and they remain flat on the water in order to take full advantage of sunlight.
The leaves of these plants have prominent cuticles, which permit water to roll off, and avoid interfering with photosynthesis. Floating leaves also tend to have well-developed air chambers to provide buoyancy. Plant Adaptations Plant Adaptations No matter what size, all organisms are able to adapt to the lake and pond ecosystems.
These insects are unable to reach where there food lies underneath the surface, so they are able to trap air in the hairs under their body so they can breathe while diving for food. Animal Adaptations Animal Adaptations Because light sources are limited the deeper the water level, these fish have whiskers that are used to sense where they are going as well as where food is.
The colder the temperature outside gets, the fish are able to sense this and keep lower below the surface to stay warm. Bacteria:
They eat decomposed plants and animals in the benthic zone: the bottom of the pond/lake where decomposers, insect larve and clams reside. Animal Adaptations Submerged plants receive low levels of sunlight, and therefore underwater leaves are highly dissected, in order to maximize surface area. This permits the rapid diffusion of carbon dioxide into the chloroplasts of the cells. The leaves also have a very thin cuticle, but the wax is thin enough to allow the easy diffusion of gases through the surface. An example of a completely submerged plant is the European Milfoil. Lakes Ponds Larger
May have dramatically different temperatures from the surface to the bottom waters
Light generally does not reach bottom at deeper points
Can affect local climate if large enough Smaller
Top and bottom waters generally have the same temperature
Light generally will reach the bottom in all areas of the pond
Tend to be greatly affected by local climate Buffalo, New York Life Near Lakes and Ponds Buffalo is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Erie
The climate is greatly influenced by the city's proximity to Lake Erie with deep valleys and streams leading to the Great Lakes and deep, wild forests that surround the area.
Half of the annual snowfall comes from"lake effect snow"
Due to its cold climate, animals that inhabit its forests and deep valleys must be prepared for long, cold winters. Animals such as deer, wolves, voles, squirrels and shrews with occasional snakes and salamanders. Birds are largely attracted to the multiple streams around the area.
This dominant wilderness environment create a culture centered around protecting its wildlife and forests. Climatogram Temperatures and Precipitation levels for Ashland, Wisconisn As seen from the climatogram above, the surrounding towns have cooler temperatures and more precipitation due to the nearby lakes. The more precipitation in the atmosphere, the cooler the temperatures. Eutrophication is one of lakes and ponds biggest threats. it is the increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem. The more nutrients that are added to the ecosystem, the more plants and algae grow and therefore the number of bacteria on decaying organisms increase. This bacteria use the oxygen to feed on the organisms, and eventually the lack of oxygen destroys the plants around it.
Lakes naturally become eutrophic over time, but runoff water augments the problem. Threats!! Lakes and ponds are susceptible to pollution due to wind blowing trash around or runoff water carrying sewage and fertilizers into the ecosystem. Other threats to lakes and ponds are filling them in or draining them for construction or recreation. An example in our town would be Jefferson Field.
Also, lakes and ponds face the threat of too much soil and matter building up or water receding, like Echo Lake. Both of these destroy the ecosystem and homes to all of its organisms. Pollution and Destruction of Ponds Lake Effect snow occurs in Buffalo when cold air crosses the relatively warm lake waters and becomes saturated, creating clouds and subsequent precipitation. Lake effect snow can begin as early as mid-November, and usually slows down when Lake Erie begins to freeze in mid to late January.
Spring tends to arrive late to the Buffalo area, because the ice pack on Lake Erie usually doesn't melt until mid April, and the lake remains chilly until May.
Areas near the lake are often as much as 20 degrees cooler than inland locations.
During the summer, Lake Erie modifies the extreme heat that approaches from the Ohio Valley, and there are normally only about three 90 degree readings over the course of the summer. Buffalo, NY Food Web Phytoplankton, algae, bacteria and other producers that live in lakes capture solar energy to make their own food during photosynthesis. Zooplankton are the primary consumers in the web, eating algae and bacteria. Secondary consumers, such as planktivorus fish, eat zooplankton. Larger fish and other carnivorous animals are tertiary consumers, eating smaller fish. Decomposers, which include bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms, feed on the remains of aquatic organisms and break down organic matter, returning it to an inorganic state. The decayed material is then recycled as nutrients and available to aid in the growth of new plants. Bibliography Works Cited
“Aquatic Plants.” Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. UCLA, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/lifeforms/aquaticplants/fulltextonly.html>.
“Aquatic Plants: Submerged Plants.” Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/aquatic_plants/submerged_plants/index.html>.
Arms, Karen. Environmental Science. Austin: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 2006. Print.
“Buffalo’s Climate.” National Weather Service Forecast Office. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.erh.noaa.gov/buf/bufclifo.htm>.
“Consumers.” Water on the Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.waterontheweb.org/under/lakeecology/15_consumers.htmla>.
Davis, Dave. “Where Are Lakes?” Lake Scientist. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.lakescientist.com/learn-about-lakes/how-lakes-differ/where-are-lakes-2.html>.