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Goal-Setting in Sport

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Daniel Mitchell

on 3 October 2017

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Transcript of Goal-Setting in Sport

Goal-Setting in Sport
Goal-Setting in Sport
Arrival Activity - Motivation & Self-Efficacy
In groups of 3/4 write 3 questions based around knowledge of motivation/self-efficacy:

1) Multiple Choice
2) True or False
3) General Knowledge

You will play a fixture against another group in a 5 minute quiz!
Lesson Outcomes
Identify different types of goals and why they are useful.
Understand the principles of goal-setting and their practical applications.
Critically analyse goal-setting theory and research.
Practice goal-setting methods and techniques.
What is a goal?
Outcome Goals
Focus on outcome of sporting event/competition.
E.G. To win a game or number of games in a season.
Athlete and opposition ability can influence success/failure.
Performance Goals
Specify an end product of performance.
Acheived independently of other athletes or teammates.
E.G. Number of points in a game, shots on goal, number of passes.
Protect motivation and self-confidence.
Consider team goals vs individual goals.
Process Goals
Focus on specific behaviours during performance.
Typically based around execution of specific techniques.
E.G. Non-kicking foot placed next to ball, Point at target after throwing the ball.
A goal is defined as something that an individual is trying to achieve (Locke & Latham, 1990).
Theory of motivation that effectively energises athletes to become more productive and effective (Latham & Locke, 2007).
Goals set typically represent internal or external desires by athletes.
Write down a goal that you wish to achieve in the next 10 years...
Goal-setting Strategy

Short Term: 1-4 weeks.
Medium Term: 3-6 months.
Long Term: Ultimate ambition - 1+ years.

Process Goals
Performance Goals
Outcome Goals
Principles of Goal-Setting


S.M.A.R.T.
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time
Other important considerations
Regularly monitor/change goals.
Use a combination of outcome, performance goals.
Use short-term goals to achieve long-term goals.
Goals must be internalised by athlete.
Use goals in practice and competition.
Consider personality
Set team and performance goals.
How will you achieve your goal?
Research:

Process and performance goals led to improved performance in golfers (Kingston and Hardy, 1997).
Process goals were more important to collegiate athletes than a combination of performance and outcome goals (Burton, Weinberg, Yukelson & Weigand, 1998).
Lowest improvement among soccer players was when only outcome goals were used (Filby, Maynard & Graydon, 1999).
Increased self-efficacy when multiple goal strategy used (Steinberg, Singer & Murphy, 2000).
Why does goal setting work?
(Locke, Shaw, Saari & Latham, 1981)
Directed attention:
Effort mobilisation
By-product of effective goal-setting.
If athlete wants to achieve success then they will persist in their efforts.
Development of New Learning strategies
Without a goal/objective participants will continue in their practices or methods.
Encourages new and alternative ways to complete a task.
Gives individual's a focal point to work towards.
Focus effort into achieving goal leads to improved performance.
Persistence
What are the potential issues with goal-setting?

DISCUSS...
Common pitfalls...
Poorly written goal statements.
Failure to create a goal-attainment strategy.
Failure to follow the strategy.
Failure to monitor performance progress.
Discouragement:
Goal difficulty
Use of outcome goals
Too many goals
Scenarios
1) One of your strikers has not scored for 10 games and is lacking confidence.

2) One of your participants approaches you and wants to become quicker.

3) You are working with an elite athlete that wants to win a medal at next year's Olympic games.

4) Your team have been relegated with a goal difference of -25 winning only 4 games all season.

5) You are a PE co-ordinator in a primary school that has a low participation rate in out of schools activities.


Use goal-setting theory and principles to develop a plan to achieve success.

References
Burton, D., Weinberg, R., Yukelson, D., & Weigand, D. (1998) The goal effectiveness paradox in sport: Examining the goal practices of collegiate athletes.
The Sport Psychologist, 12,
404-418.

Cox, R. (2012)
Sport Pyschology: Concepts and Applications.
7th Ed. New York,McGraw-Hill.

Filby, W., Maynard, I. & Graydon, J. (1999) The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition.
Journal of Sport Applied Sport Psychology, 11,
230-246.

Kingston, K. & Hardy, L. (1997) Effects of different types of goals on processes that support performance.
The Sport Psychologist, 11,
277-293.

Locke, E. & Latham, G. (1990)
A theory of goal-setting and task performance.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Latham, G. & Locke, E. (2007) New developments in and directions for goal-setting research.
European Psychologist, 12,
290-300.

Steinberg, G., Singer, R. & Murphy, M. (2000) The benefits to sport achievement when a multiple goal orientation is emphasized.
Journal of Sport Behaviour, 23,
407-422.

Weinberg, R. Gould, D. (2015)
Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
5th Ed.Champaign, Human Kinetics.

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