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Least Developed Countries
Transcript of Least Developed Countries
Lowest Human Development Index ratings 1
The Americas 33
Asia and the Pacific Low-Income: 3 year average GNI per capita of less than US $905, which must exceed $1,086 to leave the list Human Resource weakness: based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy. Economic Vulnerability
1) Population size
3) Merchandise export concentration
4) Share of agriculture
5) Forestry and fisheries in GDP
6) Homelessness owing to natural Disasters
7) Instability of agricultural production
8) Instability of exports of goods and services Reduced trade, FDI and remittance inflows Crises of food prices, fuel, debt and climate change in LDCs Extreme resource constraints and drastic cuts in aid STEPS TAKEN TILL NOW:
Brussels Program of Action 2001 – 2010
*Fostering a people-centred policy framework
*Good governance at national and international levels
*Building human and institutional capacities
*Building productive capacities to
make globalization work for LDCs
*Enhancing the role of trade in
*Reducing vulnerabilities and
protecting the environment
*Mobilizing financial resources 3) Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative
* Provides debt relief and low-interest loans to cancel or reduce external debt repayments to sustainable levels
* Provided by the IMF, World bank and other multilateral organizations, while the other half is provided by the creditor countries How to save the LDCs?? 1) * Integrate Brussels POA into their National Development Program
* Appoint a high-level LDC focal point
* Work closely with the UN Resident Coordinator 2) Establish a National Forum
The forum may include
1) Policy makers
2) Private sector
3) NGOs/civil society
6) Media iv) The United Nations system organizations and other multilateral organizations should mainstream the implementation of the Brussels POA within their programme of work
vi) The United Nations system organizations that have not yet established a focal point for LDCs will need to identify one soon vii) The Office of the High Representative should consider establishing a Trust Fund for the LDCs at the United Nations to provide
2) For the implementation of the Brussels POA
3) Support the Office of the Chairperson of the LDCs Coordinating Bureau viii) 1) Official Development Assistance (ODA) remains a critical resource for achieving the objectives, goals and targets of the POA.
2) It is essential to consider fully, both quantitative and qualitative aspects of aid and the effective coordination of this aid.
3) Enhancement of ODA to 0.20 per cent as agreed in the UN conferences will certainly have a significant impact on the implementation of the POA ix) 1) The external debt overhang constitutes a serious obstacle to the development efforts and economic growth of LDCs.
2) The serious debt problems of LDCs necessitate a comprehensive solution, including the full, speedy and effective implementation of the enhanced HIPC initiative and other debt relief measures xi) NGOs and civil society need to play an important role as development partners in the least developed countries. Private sector also needs to engage in providing effective support to LDCs development objectives. Efforts should be made to enhance their involvement in the implementation of the POA. x) A synoptic table/chart should be prepared by the Office of the High Representative for use and reference by the ECOSOC for intergovernmental review and for monitoring and follow-up of implementation of the POA by LDCs and its development partners v) 1) The LDCs should participate in the inter governmental processes and coordination efforts
2) The Office of the High Representative would continue to give full support in facilitating their participation
3) The decisions of UNICEF and UNDP Executive Boards should lead to similar actions in the upcoming meetings of the other relevant governing bodies 3) * Implementation of the actions contained in the POA
*Translate them into specific measures within their national development framework and poverty eradication strategy
* Implement them, where they exist, in
1)Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs)
2)Common country assessments (CCAs)
3) United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF),
*Guide the effective implementation on the basis of a broad-based inclusive dialogue How serious is the economic crisis facing the 49 LDCs? 2) Millennium Development Goals Second Criteria (Health) Second Criteria (Health) Second Criteria (Adult Literacy) Third Criteria (Population) Population and the economy Education Participation and Efficiency Improved Water and sanitation Communications