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Best Practices for Online Discussion
Transcript of Best Practices for Online Discussion
Online Discussion Limited student participation (e.g., Cheung & Hew, 2004; Hewitt, 2005).
Students tended to only post the minimum number of messages required (e.g., Fung, 2004; Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000).
Students did not seem to read other postings or respond to their peers (e.g., Benfield, 2000; Berge, 1995).
Students’ level of knowledge construction tended to be low (e.g., Cheung & Hew, 2005).
Online students appeared to have less learning motivation than students attending traditional face-to-face classes (e.g., Brooks & Jeong, 2006). Survey Results “Students may have no interests in discussion topics”.
“Students may worry about what they post are not what the instructors expect”.
“Students may feel online discussion cannot enhance their learning in the online courses”.
“Students may not have prior experiences of online discussions”. Student Opinions
“When I raise my hand and say something in class it feels completely different”
"Because we are humans and not robots, we like to communicate face to face" Community of Inquiry Cognitive Presence “… the extent to which participants are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry.” (Garrison, 2003) Social Presence “…the ability of learners to project their personal characteristics into the community of inquiry, thereby presenting themselves as real people.” (Garrison, 2003)
Introduction - let students get to know one another (Chung 2008).
Create a “Student-to-Student Discussion” forum.
Create a “Questions to the instructor” forum.
Use video, audio or visual-spatial discussion types (Case & Crooks, 2012) Garrison and Anderson (2000) proposed the community of inquiry as a conceptual framework in online teaching and learning. Strategies:
Choose interesting topics to motivate students.
Use debating, problem-solving, student-generated, sentence opener discussion types (e.g., Brooks & Jeong, 2009; Han & Cheon, 2011)
Provide clear expectations and guidelines (e.g., Dennen, 2005)
Length or quantity of posts
Quality of posting
Grade discussions following the guidelines. Teaching Presence “…the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educational worthwhile learning outcomes.” (Garrison, 2003)
"The more the instructor posted, the shorter the students responded" (Mazzolini and Maddison, 2003).
Introduce yourself in first week.
Encourage students who have contributed in an exemplary manner.
Redirect when information is incorrect, or is off-topic.
Contribute and intervene when appropriate.
Send reminders for noncontributing students to participate in discussion.
Wrap Up Discussion – either via the Announcements area, an audio file summarizing, or a simple post. http://www.udacity.com/overview/Course/ph100/CourseRev/1 A Sample Online Teacher Introduction An Example of Discussion Guidelines Ninghua Han Thank You! https://sites.google.com/site/ninghuaseportfolio/ An Example of Visual-Spatial Discussion “It [MindMeister] gives me a sense of community with my classmates.”
“I really enjoy the physical layout of the map.”
“It helps to collaborate and link ideas well.” Why students keep silence or have low motivation in online discussions? (Han & Crooks, 2012) Interactive analysis model (IAM) was established to detect evidence of knowledge construction in a collaborative online discussion environment (Gunawardena, 1997) WiseMapping