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Chapter 4


Lexi Abercrombie

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 4

photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr The End Century of Imperial War Major Wars (1689- 1763) The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture American Enlightenment European historians often refer to the eighteenth century as an Age of Reason. Chapter 4 Experience of Empire Eighteenth-Century America, 1680-1763 William Byrd Lived from 1674-1744 A British American that, in 1728, accepted a commission to help survey a disputed boundary between Virginia and North Carolina. When he took this journey into the backcountry, he kept a journal of the daily events that is now regarded as a classic of early American literature. Tensions in the Backcountry The backcountry, stretching 800 miles from western Pennsylvania to Georgia, was inhabited by the English, non-English Europeans that migrated, unhappy Native Americans, African Americans, as well as other Europeans. The Scots-Irish were discriminated against during the seventeenth century and were placed at a disadvantage when they traded in England. After several poor harvests in the 1720s, the Scots-Irish began to emigrate to America with hopes of freedom and prosperity, which they were denied in Ireland. More than 1000 people in the backcountry came from the upper Rhine Valley, the German Palatinate. Some of the German migrants belonged to small pietistic Protestant sects whose religious views were similar to those of the Quakers. These Germans moved to the New World primarily for religious toleration. Under the guidance of Francis Daniel Pastorius, Mennonites established a prosperous community in Pennsylvania known as Germantown. After some Lutherans had begun to move to improve their material lives, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg helped German Lutherans through a difficult cultural adjustment. He organized a meeting that ordained ministers of their own choosing, an act of spiritual independence that has been called "the most important single event in American Lutheran history." After 1730, Germans and Scots-Irish pushed south from western Pennsylvania into the Shenandoah Valley, thousands of them settling in the backcountry. During much of the 17th century, various Indian groups who contested English settlers for control of coastal lands suffered terribly, sometimes from war, but more often from contagious diseases such as smallpox. The two races found it difficult two live in close proximity. The concept of middle ground helps to understand how the 18th century Indians stood their ground in the backcountry beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Native Americans never intended to isolate themselves totally from the Europeans, they relied on English and French traders to provide essential metal goods and weapons. Spanish
Century Until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Madrid, Spanish authorities struggled to control a vast northern frontier. During the 18th century, the Spanish empire in North America included widely dispersed settlements such as San Francisco and San Diego, California; Santa Fe, New Mexico; San Antonio, Texas; and St. Augustine, Florida. In these borderland communities, European colonists mixed with other races and backgrounds, forming multicultural societies. As opposed to English frontier settlements of the eighteenth century, Spanish outposts in North America grew slowly. During this period ideas swept through salons and universities, altering how educated Europeans thought about God, nature, and society. This intellectual revolution is known as the Enlightenment. For many Americans, the appeal of the Enlightenment was its focus on a search for useful knowledge, ideas, and inventions to improve the quality of human life. During this time the Navigation Acts were still in effect.
Furs were added to the restricted list in 1722.
The White Pines Acts passed in 1711, 1722, and 1729 forbade Americans from cutting white pine trees without a license.
The Molasses Act of 1733(also called Sugar Act) placed a heavy duty tax on molasses imported from foreign ports.
The Hat and Felt Act of 1732 and the Iron Act of 1750 attempted to limit the production of colonial goods that competed with British exports. After midcentury, Americans began buying more English goods than their parents or grandparents had done, giving birth to a consumer revolution. Between 1740 and 1770, English exports to the American colonies increased by an astounding 360%. Backcountry farmers in western Pennsylvania and the Shenandoah Valley carried their grain to market along an old Iroquois trail that became known as the Great Wagon Road, a rough hilly highway that by the time of the Revolution stretched 735 miles along the Blue Ridge Mountains to Camden, South Carolina. Long, graceful Conestoga wagons carried most of their produce. German immigrants in the Conestoga River Valley in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, had invented these "wagons of empire." Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies The Great Awakening was a spontaneous series of Protestant revivals in the mid-eighteenth century that was sparked by Jonathan Edwards and his acceptance of the traditional teachings of Calvinism. Itinerant preachers such as Gilbert Tennent and Charles Chauncy, traveled from settlement to settlement throughout the colonies to spread their message. Elected members of colonial assemblies believed that they had an obligation to preserve colonial liberties. They percieved any attack on the legislature as an assault on the rights of Americans. The representatives brooked no criticism, and several colonial printers were jailed because they criticized actions taken by a lower house. The political development of the eighteenth century is known as "the rise of the assemblies." 1689-1697 1743-1748 1702-1713 King William's War Opposition to French bid for control of Europe. New England troops assault Quebec under Sir William Phips in 1690. The treaty of Ryswick was signed in 1697. Queen Anne's War Austria and France hold rival claims to Spanish throne. Treaty of Utrecht signed in 1713 King George's War Struggle among Britain, Spain, and France for control of New World territory; among France, Prussia, and Austria for control of centeral Europe. 1756-1763 French and Indian War Treaty of Ais-la-Chapelle signed in 1748. Struggle among Britain, Spain, and France for worldwide control of colonial markets and raw materials. Peace of Paris Signed in 1763. After all of the wars, Benjamin Franklin felt the need for inter colonial cooperation, so he devised a plan. The Albany Plan was a vision of Franklin to form a Grand Council, made up of elected delegates from the colonies, to oversee matters of common defense, western expansion, and Indian affairs. A President General appointed by the king would preside. The Seven Years' War made a deep impression on American society. Even though Franklin's Albany Plan failed, the war had forced the colonists to cooperate on an unprecedented scale. Colonial Americans, by midcentury took their political and cultural cues from Great Britain. They fought in its wars, purchased its consumer goods, flocked to hear its evangelical preachers, and read its publications. The empire gave the colonists a compelling source of identity. Americans hailed Britannia. In 1763, they were the victors, the conquerors of the backcountry. In their moment of glory, the colonists assumed that Britain's rulers saw Americans as brothers rather than sons.
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