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Purpose of Schooling
Transcript of Purpose of Schooling
Goal: racial and cultural harmony
Outcome: "separate but equal" found to be unequal
Funding is not only determiner in student outcome
1st move toward social justice Oyez. (2011, November 16). Retrieved from http://www.oyez.org/cases/1950-1959/1952/1952_1 1954 Sputnik 1957 Launched by Russia during Cold War
Response: targeting educational reform
Enacted National Defense Education Act (NDEA) (1958)
Purpose of Schooling: external focus--competition Powell, A. (2007). Harvard gazette. Retrieved from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/10/how-sputnik-changed-u-s-education/ Purpose of Schooling Competition 1960s Civil Rights RACIAL DESEGREGATION Federal Government more involved in schooling:
forced schools to comply to receive federal funds
Work in progress--especially in the South War on Poverty 1964 HEAD START Federal matching grant program
Goal: counteract inadequate learning opportunities for poor children
improve learning skills, social skills, health status
Purpose: improve low-quality education 1964 Spring, J. (2012). American education. (15 ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Currie, J., & Thomas, D. (1995). Retrieved from The National Bureau of Economic Research website: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4406 Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965 Key legislation
Forbids national curriculum
Funds go to reading & math programs
Goal: educational equality James Meredith and Ole Miss 1962 African American attempted to register 4 times without success
Rioting when accompanied by federal marshals on 1st day (2 deaths, dozens injured)
Segregation at University of Mississippi ended next day
Attended class accompanied by federal troops John f. kennedy presidential library and museum. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx?p=2 Birmingham 1963 Most segregated city in the nation
MLK launched mass protests in Birmingham
Arrested on Good Friday
Wrote "Letter From Birmingham Jail"
James Bevel launched marches in Birmingham City
contested by police dogs and fire hoses
JFK sent thousands of troops to Alabama air base and sped up a comprehensive civil rights bill Integration of University of Alabama Governor George Wallace vowed "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever." 1963 Promised to "stand in the schoolhouse door" to prevent black students from enrolling JFK federalized Alabama National Guard & protected enrollment Addressed the nation: announced promise to uphold civil rights and desegregation Civil Rights Act of 1964 Begun by John F. Kennedy Passed by Lyndon B. Johnson after JFK's assassination Protected against discrimination
Authorized legal suits against segregation in public schools
Withdrew funds from all programs practicing discrimination
Outlawed discrimination in employment Purpose of Schooling: Racial & Educational Equality 1970s OPEC Oil Crisis 1973 High unemployment, interest rights & inflation Funding cut for public education--schools suffered Discovery Method Freedom of Choice Teachers encourage students to discover meanings Textbook-oriented learning (50's) Desegregation Busing 1971 Blacks & Whites traditionally lived in separate neighborhoods Desegregating schools meant transporting by bus Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education ruling Lower courts given power to impose it to achieve integration Goal: achieving racial balance in previously segregated schools TITLE IX 1972 GOAL: Gender Equity Requires equality for boys and girls in every educational program that receives federal funding o Titleix.info. (2012, January 1). Retrieved from http://www.titleix.info/History/History-Overview.aspx Ryan, K., & Cooper, J. (2004). Extra articles and resources . Wadsworth Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://college.cengage.com/education/ryan_cooper/twct/10e/students/articles/ch04.html PL 94-142: Education of All Handicapped Children Act 1975 Stan Protigal. (1999). Seattle community network. Retrieved from http://www.scn.org/~bk269/94-142.html FREE, appropriate education to all children with disabilities Introduced IEPs: Individual Education Plans GOAL: Equality among ALL students OUTCOMES Majority of disabled students could attend public school in their neighborhood in regular classrooms
Increased graduation and employment rates
Increase in post-secondary enrollments PURPOSE OF SCHOOL: Equal Opportunity for ALL students 1820-1840 1880-1920 Post Great War’s, Great Depression’s, and World War II’s Impact on Education 1920-1949 1980-2001:
New Goals Suzanne Irwin 2001-Present END Conclusion From the 1950s through the 1970s, our public education system has been influenced by our federal government. Focus has shifted from an external concentration on competition to an internal concentration on equality: first for all races, and then for all types of people. The progress our country has made on civil rights has permanently and positively affected our public schooling system Abolish the Department of Education
Return prayer to a prominent place in schools
Implement tax credits for private school tuition Ronald Reagan's Campaign Promises THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Reagan's second Secretary of Education, William Bennett, along with Lynne Cheney, chairperson of the National Endowment of the Humanities, led the charge in calling for school prayer and a return to traditional, morally-based classroom teaching and discipline.
Although Bennett was not successful in implementing Christian prayer in schools, many states passed "moment of silence" laws.
The Reagan Administration's efforts in this area resulted in a lasting focus on moral education in public classrooms, even among educators who mostly disagreed with its policies. PRAYER IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Many Americans felt the conservative policies of the Reagan Administration did not go far enough. Some, frustrated by what they perceived as moral corruption in the public school system, began educating their children at home.
Throughout the 1980's and 1990's, the homeschooling movement became a strong trend in the extreme Christian right. THE HOME SCHOOL MOVEMENT Reagan advocated for the implementation of tuition tax credits for parents already sending their children to private school. Opponents to the plan argued that the tax credits would enable religious schools, backed by churches, to received public funds.
The argument for school choice received powerful support from both economists and political scientists throughout the 1980's and early 1990's.
Public support for the movement was slow to take hold, with voters repeatedly rejecting the plan on a state level throughout the 1990's.
Cleveland and Milwaukee were two of the first cities to implement school choice programs. TUITION TAX CREDITS
AND SCHOOL CHOICE Milton Friedman In 1983, Terrell Bell, Reagan's first Secretary of Education, published a report titled A Nation at Risk.
Bell strove to persuade the American public of an immediate crisis in public education.
National media reported on the paper as sensational, and responses to the report were mixed. A NATION AT RISK David Berliner and Bruce J. Biddle attempted to counter Bell's report with their book The Manufactured Crisis.
In 1987, E.D. Hirsch, Jr. published a paper titled Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know.
In the paper, Hirsch agreed that American education was in decline, and then outlined a list of 5,000 terms which every American should know.
Hirsch would later publish a series of books outlining the subject matter which each child should learn in each grade.
These core standards prescribed by Hirsch were foundational steps toward later administrations' policies of national standards. RESPONSES TO
A NATION AT RISK All children in America will start school ready to learn.
The high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90 percent.
American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography; and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so that they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.
US students will be the first in the world in science and mathematics achievement.
Every adult American will be literate and will posses the knowledge and skills necessary to complete in a global economy and to exercise the rights and responsibilites of citizenship.
Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning. AMERICA 2000 When President George H. W. Bush was elected in 1988, his educational goals and policies were consistent with Reagan's. The administration published a pamphlet titled America 2000, outlining educational goals to be achieved by the year 2000. President Bill Clinton largely adopted Bush's educational agenda when he was elected in 1992, changing the terminology to "Goals 2000" and adding two points of calling for parental involvement in education and establishing programs for improving teachers' professional education.
Although Clinton's educational policies were mostly similar to his two predecessors, he differed in that he was against school prayer and in that he advocated a school choice plan that limited options to public schools only. GOALS 2000 The educational policies of the Reagan, Bush Sr., and Clinton administrations were marked more by their similarities than their differences.
The new goals in education which developed under these three presidencies were centered around establishing national standards of excellence and emphasizing moral education in schools.
When elected in 2000, George W. Bush had already implemented an accountability system in Texas schools during his term as governor.
With the groundwork having been laid by his predecessors, Bush would build upon this accountability system in his presidential terms. NEW GOALS, NEW STANDARDS:
CONCLUSION Keep youth out of the labor market in the 1920’s-1930’s
Encourage proper home functioning by combating the decline of family
Create a community within schools by extracurricular activities Purpose of School in the 1920’s-1940’s John Dewey
Student-Driven and Student-Centered Approach
Each student achieve their potential Progressive Movement Continues End of WWI (1918)
Great Depression (1929-1939)
World War II (1941-1945)
1925 Supreme Court case Pierce vs. Society of Sisters ruled that states cannot compel children to attend public schools if they are in a private school. Political Impacts on Education Addition of:
These additions helped the number of students going to high school greatly increase until World War II when teenagers were forced to join the workforce because of the lack of able bodied people due to the draft. Many states changed their child labor laws to allow this. Expansion of High Schools Art Education
Dick and Jane books were introduced
1st Dr. Seuss book was published
Lewis Terman creates Achievement tests. Approaches to Learning Many great authors wrote works that capture the mood of the times: The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, Ernest Hemmingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Harry Sinclair Lewis, and William Faulkner Accomplishments in Education Harlem Renaissance (1920-1939)
This was a cultural explosion in Harlem, New York. This movement included music, literature, and art. Important figures were Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, W. E. B. DuBois Accomplishments in Education
First Nobel Prize in Literature awarded in 1930 to Harry Sinclair Lewis.
William Faulkner won the Nobel
Prize in 1949 and Ernest Hemmingway
won the Nobel Prize in 1954. Accomplishments
in Education American Literature. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Literature
Dr. Seuss. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Seuss
Harlem Renaissance. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_renaissance
Harry Lewis Sinclair. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Sinclair_Lewis
History of education in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_United_States
Lewis Terman. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Terman
Pierce v. the Society of Sisters. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierce_v._the_Society_of_Sisters
Spring, Joel H. (2012). American Education (15th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. United States home front during World War II. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2012 from Wikipedia: en/wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_home_front_during_World_War_II References 17. 15. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. 2011 National NAEP Reading Scores, Grade 4, with Trend 2011 NAEP Reading Scores by Achievement Level, Grade 4, Showing Race and Ethnicity 2011 NAEP Math Scores, Grade 4, with Trend 2011 NAEP Math Scores, 4th Grade, by Achievement Level, Showing Race and Ethnicity Guide to NCLB, 2004, p. 13 "The principles of No Child Left Behind date back to Brown v. Board of Education, ...[and] continue the legacy of the Brown v. Board decision by creating an education system that is more inclusive, responsive, and fair." The goal of NCLB was to have all 50 million students in nearly 100,000 public schools to be proficient in reading and math by the end of the 2013-2014 school year. Equality of Opportunity Satisfying the demand for highly skilled workers is the key to maintaining competitiveness and prosperity in the global economy. Human Capital Guide to NCLB, 2004, p.1 1. Improve the Achievement of the Economically Disadvantaged.
2. Language Instruction for Immigrant Students
3. Giving Parents Choices and Creating Innovative Education Programs
4. Making the Education System Accountable
5. Helping All Children Learn To Read
6. Helping Children with Disabilities The promotion of charter schools in an important stated component of NCLB. Federal funding of $490 million in FY 2011 "to
support the creation and expansion of effective charter schools, other effective autonomous schools, and comprehensive systems of public school choice." Equality of Opportunity and NCLB Title I program funding for students in high poverty schools. Increased by 77% from 2001 levels to $14.5 billion fpr FY2012. $732 million for English language acquisition funding, up from $681 in 2005. Required every state to set standards for grade-level achievement and develop a system to measure progress. Designed to prevent prevent aggregation of statistics and highlight performance of subgroups as well as the whole. Lack of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) results in lack of funding. Federal funding for Reading First programs, Early Reading First, and Striving Readers. Dismantled in 2009. Funded through the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Served over 6000 children in 2010. Human Capital and NCLB Results and Response to NCLB: 10 years The Good The Bad Authority regarding achievement and accountability moving back to the states; eliminating punitive measures (at least informally). Focus on Education Citizenship
Technology Purposes of Schooling: Beyond Achievement Teresa Allen The 1880s to 1920s were a period of rapid, and at times, violent growth for the United States in terms of population, geographic expansion, governmental policies and bureaucracy
Education shifted from one-room schoolhouses in which students of all ages were taught together (in rural areas) and private, elite schools in urban areas to a broad, state-by-state organized system of elementary and secondary public education
Also developed in this time period were some key elements of the style of American education – Home Economics (now called Family and Life Sciences), extracurricular sports and other activities
The aims of public education were largely to “Americanize” the masses of new immigrants and prepare workers for life in an increasingly modernized, industrialized world
America achieved higher overall literacy rates and a higher age of publicly educated population (14 years) than many of its peer countries
And yet education was still unequal in terms of minority populations (African Americans, Asians, and women in particular) 1880s to 1920s - Conclusions The American Home Economic Association was created in 1909 and its
aims were to create curriculum which would make running a home a science
Increasingly, young women were taught to rely on pre-prepared foods and how to efficiently tackle housework so that their husbands “would want to hurry home from work rather than stop at a tavern” and “housewives were to improve the political and cultural level of the American home”
Additionally, “home economics hoped to persuade immigrant children to abandon the diet of their parents for the new American cuisine”
Spring, American Education (20) 1880s to 1920s – Home Economics Before the 1880s few rural areas had schools and yet the US population had one of the highest literacy rates due to free elementary schools in all states; education was free but
not widely available
The first public high school opened in Boston in 1821 and by the start of the 20th century public secondary schools numbered more than private secondary schools
At the start of the 20th century 34 states had compulsory school laws. 30 of these required school attendance through age 14 (or more.).
“As a result, by 1910, 72% of American children attended school. Half the nation’s children attended one-room schools. In 1916, every state required students to complete elementary school”
Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States 1880s to 1920s - Growth & Development of Schools Booker T. Washington
Edward Cubberly 1880s to 1920s - Visionaries To meet growing demands for workers, particularly in industrialized jobs, the importance of schooling increases
“In the nineteenth century … a school diploma indicated to employers that the applicant had been punctual, regularly attended school, completed assigned tasks, and was obedient to authority. In other words, the bearer showed good work habits”
Spring, American Education (8)
“In the United States, patriotic exercises and fostering school spirit were emphasized after the arrival in the 1890s of large numbers of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe”
Spring, American Education (16)
The Pledge of Allegiance was written and implemented in schools in 1892 1880s – 1890s - Education Policy Brief Timeline of American Literature and Events, http://public.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/
Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920 Population 1920-Number and Distribution of Inhabitants Volume I
Maps ETC, Maps ETC is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse, produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology © 2009, College of Education, University of South Florida
PBS, School: the Story of American Public Education http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/
Spring, Joel. American Education, 13th Edition. McGraw Hill, 2007.
Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States, http://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_United_States 1880s to 1920s - References In 1918 the National Education Association’s report, the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, “set the stage for high school to become the major public institution for socialization of youth through school dances, athletics, student government, clubs” and so on. Spring, American Education (21)
Between 1897 and 1914 high schools increased in number and altered curriculum
“In 1910, for example, 9% of Americans had a high school diploma; in 1935, the rate was 40%” Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States 1880s to 1920s - High Schools and Higher Ed The Progressive Movement sought to eliminate waste and corruption
from all aspects of American life, including education.
Atlanta was seen as a model of reform in 1897, when the superintendent’s power increased and the power of ward bosses eliminated. In addition, best practices were determined for school building, curriculum and instructional standardization
Another model city was Gary, Indiana, a “new steel” city. William Wirt, superintendent (1907-1930) focused on efficient use of facilities, dividing students into “platoons” and rotating them between academics and extracurriculars (like shop, gymnasium, etc.) He also started a night school program “to Americanize the new immigrants,” which focused on vocational education. More than 200 cities adopted the “Gary Plan” only to abandon its practices during the Great Depression
Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States 1880s to 1920s - Model Schools “In American education, the political process determines the goals of public schools which in turn determines what is taught and how it is taught”
Joel Spring American Education (9) Public School Curriculum and the Political Process By 1920 32% of youths aged 14-17 were enrolled in high school
Total 14-17 year old population was almost 2 million
Wikipedia, History of American Education 1920 - High School Enrolment In 1890 7% of the youth aged 14-17 population were enrolled in high school
Total 14-17 year old population: 200,000
Wikipedia, History of American Education 1890 – High School Enrolment “The goals for public schools established in the nineteenth century were:
reducing political and social unrest by teaching future citizens
a common set of political values and patriotism;
reducing social tensions by promising to provide students with equality of economic opportunity to compete for income;
decreasing crime by teaching morality; and
eradicating poverty by stimulating economic growth. “
Joel Spring in American Education (9) Goals of schooling in the nineteenth century Fourteenth Census of the United States
Taken in the Year 1920 Population 1920-Number and Distribution of Inhabitants Volume I Population and Distribution,
1920 Census 1920 - High School Enrolment Population and Distribution,
1880 Census By 1920 32% of youths aged 14-17 were enrolled in high school
Total 14-17 year old population was almost 2 million
Wikipedia, History of American Education Eastman patents the flexible film roll
The first skyscraper is built in Chicago
The Brooklyn Bridge opens
Edison invents and expands incandescent lighting
Ottmar Mergenthaler patents the linotype machine
The Statue of Liberty is dedicated
Edison patents a motion picture camera
Telephones operate between Chicago and New York
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court upholds separate but equal legislation
X-rays are first used to treat breast cancer
The Wright brothers fly
Henry Ford builds the Model T automobile 1880s to 1920s - Innovation A gunfight at the O.K. corral kills Western legends
The Nez Perce war kills many Native Americans
Dawes Severalty Act ultimately reduces the amount of land held by
The Oklahoma Land Rush opens the West to new settlers and displaces millions of Native Americans
North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Arizona, Oklahoma achieve statehood
Wars and expansion continue
Wounded Knee massacre
Klondike gold rush
Puerto Rico becomes a territory
Immigration laws exclude Japanese workers 1890s to 1920s - Wild West, Settlement, Expansion, Displacement Through a series of tightened legislation, Chinese nationals are barred from immigrating and/or re-entry
Yosemite Park is established
First international copyright law is implemented
Department of Labor and Commerce is created
National Child Labor Committee is established
Women’s suffrage movement surges
The 16th Amendment, graduated national income tax, is ratified
The 17th Amendment, popular election instead of appointment of senators, is passed
The Supreme Court dissolves Standard Oil Company and the American Tobacco Company
Immigration Act requires literacy test for immigrants
Prohibition becomes law 1880s to 1920s - Legislation Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust
Supreme Court rules that corporations are “persons” and cannot be denied profits or right of due process
American Federation of Labor begins
The Interstate Commerce Act and first anti-trust laws pass
Sherman anti-trust law is put in place
Strikes figure significantly in politics – Coxey’s Army, Pullman strike, Coeur d’Alene silver mine workers, steelworkers 1880 to 1920s – Capitalism President Garfield is shot and killed; he is replaced by Arthur.
McKinley is inaugurated in 1897 and is assassinated in 1901; Roosevelt is confirmed as president (after McKinley is shot)
The Ludlow massacre, National Guard killing of striking workers, causes demonstrations across the nation
World War I begins in 1914; U.S. enters the war in 1917
The Titanic sinks 1880 to 1920s – Violent Changes 1880s to 1920s Influences on Policy “ This bill proposes to lay off every county into small districts of five or six miles square, called hundreds, and in each of them to establish a school for teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic. The tutor to be supported by the hundred, and every person in it entitled to send their children three years gratis, and as much longer as they please, paying for it. These schools to be under a visitor [i.e., superintendent], who is annually to choose the boy of best genius in the school, of those whose parents are too poor to give them further education, and to send him forward to one of the grammar schools [high schools, in effect] of which twenty are proposed to be erected in different parts of [Virginia], for teaching Greek, Latin, geography, and the higher branches of numerical arithmetic. Of the boys thus sent in any one year, trial is to be made at the grammar schools one or two years, and the best genius of the whole selected, and continued six years, and the residue dismissed. By this means twenty of the best geniuses will be raked from the rubbish annually, and be instructed, at the public expence, so far as the grammar schools go.”
Jefferson’s bill never passed the VA congress. Summary of Jefferson’s educational plan Primary goal of schooling was to teach people how to read not how to be good citizens
Favored schooling on a more local level
Promote meritocracy equal opportunity to develop one’s abilities and advance in the social hierarchy (based on merits or achievements)
“Success or failure in school determines later position in society”
Fair educational system but limited.
Only 3 years of general education (reading-Greek/English/roman/US history, writing, and arithmetic) Thomas Jefferson’s vision
Americans have valued education from this country's earliest days. In early colonial days, most education took place in the home through dame schools, in the church, and through apprentice programs, with instruction dominated by religious teachings. It was an option for the select few.
In 1647, Massachusetts passed the “Old Deluder Satan Law”, requiring that every town of 50 households appoint and pay a teacher of reading and writing, and every town of 100 households provide a Latin grammar school. This law offered a model for other communities and made the establishment of schools a practical reality.
Colonial Latin grammar schools prepared white boys for a university education. In the 1700s, academies were established; they were more secular and practical in their curriculum and were open to girls. Purposes of Education in the Colonial Years Born in 1796; came from a poor family
“Father of the Common schools”
First Secretary of the State Board of Education in MA (1837)
Gave up legal career to focus on social reforms as he believed education was a better means to change the society. Horace Mann (1796-1859) During the nineteenth century, public support started to grow for the concept of universal education, and the belief that schools should serve the poor as well as the wealthy.
This time period saw the creation of the common or public schools movement led by Horace Mann who helped create state-wide common schools systems. No tuition
Opened to all white kids
Funded and controlled by the Public
Taught by well-trained educators
Provide equal economic opportunity to all
Educate political leaders and train future citizens
Teach common moral values
Eliminate poverty The “Common Schools”
Prepare more people to share in the American dream
Train children not only intellectually but morally
Education is ‘key to social improvement’. Instilling moral values in a child is like putting a police’s heart in the child less number of police required by the society.
-More disciplined and obedient citizens means less crimes
Equal economic opportunity - “all members of a society are given equal chances to pursue wealth and enter any occupation or social class"
Human capital - ‘investing in education will improve the value of worker and, thus boost the wealth of the community’ Horace Mann and The “Common Schools” Education would shape individuals from all socio-economic backgrounds into good people and good citizens 1821 – First high school with free enrollment
Boston High School opens with free instruction in an English curriculum
1825 – First high school for girls
Boston opens the first high school for girls.
1827 – Education laws implemented
towns of 500+ families are required to provide public English high schools.
1829 – First school for the blind in America
Americans receive their first school for the blind
Perkins School for the Blind. Originally called the New England Asylum for the Blind, education extended to the disabled. Quick Facts (1820-80) Civil War and westward expansion depleted the number of male Education Crisis
Population growth in the West High School Growth demand for teacher
“It is woman who is to come in at this emergency and meet the demand; woman, whom experience and testing has shown to be the best, as well as the cheapest, guardian and teacher of childhood, in the school as well as in the nursery” (Catharine Beecher 1847)
Women answered these calls
Promise of adventure, economic stability independence, marriage opportunities, or the chance to do God's work
By late 1880’s, women occupied 90% of rural teaching positions. The Westward Expansion and Homestead Act 1852 – School attendance goes into law
Prior to the Civil War, Massachusetts is the only state to require school attendance. Children between the ages of eight and fourteen must attend three months of school. While towns do not enforce the rule, it popularizes that learning is the new norm.
1867 – US Department of Education
collect information on schools and teaching to help the States establish effective, individual school systems.
1873 – First Public kindergarten and School year is extended
fight urban poverty
The school year expands to twenty weeks per year. State officers are hired to enforce attendance and towns are asked to comply. Quick Facts cont’d 1837 – First women’s college
Mary Lyons establishes Mount Holyoke Seminary for women
1837 – First United States Board of Education
During the first twelve years of the United States Board of Education, Horace Mann sets up a consensus doubling state funding to education and teaching salaries. Fifty new high schools are built thanks to this funding, along with formal teacher training programs and school libraries.
1839 – First state school for teachers
The first “Normal School,” a state operated teacher training program, accepts three young women. It is located in Lexington.
1848 – First graded elementary school
Boston’s Quincy Grammar School is the first public school that separates students into different grade levels. Quick Facts cont’d Spring, Joel. American Education. 14th ed
http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/roots_in_history/index.html Although Reagan did not abolish the Department of Education, he and his first appointed Secretary of Education, Terrell Bell, agreed upon dramatic cuts to federal spending on education.
The President also worked with banks on transitioning most university student grant programs into student loan programs.
Head Start was one of the few programs to escape funding cuts. THE REAGAN
ADMINISTRATION CALLS FOR REFORM 1988 - 2001 Spring, Joel (2012). American Education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Urban, Wayne J. and Jennings L. Wagoner, Jr. (2009). American
Education: A History. New York: Routledge. RESOURCES Lee Daugherty 1. Preparing, Training, and Recruiting Highly Qualified Teachers and Principals
2. Giving Parents Choices and Creating Innovative Education Programs
3. Making the Education System Accountable All teachers must be "highly qualified." To be "highly qualified":
hold a bachelor's degree
hold a certificate or license to teach in the state
have proven knowledge of the subject he or she teaches. The Future Community service Eating Habits Distance Learning, Khan Academy, Hybrid Courses, Interactive White Boards, Wii in schools, Ipads, computers, etc.