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Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

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by

ashleigh knight

on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Where did the elements come from??
Alchemist used to search tirelessly for GOLD and the ability to convert substances to GOLD

Along the way elements like phosphorous and carbon were discovered

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Elements are rare!
There are only 92 known elements naturally occurring on the Earth

Many things are seen as compounds

Elements are made up of atoms with the same number of small particles
Elements: Whats inside?
Elements are made up of atoms

Atoms are made up of very small particles called electrons, protons and neutrons
Tells us the position of an element on the periodic table
Atomic Number = the number of protons in an element

Hydrogen - 1 Berylium - 4
Helium - 2 Boron - 5
Lithium - 3 Carbon - 6
How do we name the elements?
Each element is given a name and a symbol
Some elements are represented by a capital letter of its name

Oxygen = O Carbon = C Nitrogen = N
Research task
Choose any element of the periodic table. Create an A4 poster including the following:
Name of the element
Symbol
Picture
Who discovered it an when
Its Latin or greek root word (i.e. lead = plumbum)


Due as Fridays homework :-)
Checking out Appearances
Page 229 of your text

Copy the table into your workbook

Aim - To examine and describe the properties or a selection of elements
Elements of the same capital letter use a small letter as well

Ca = Calcium Co = Cobalt Cu = Copper
What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
Compounds
Elements are bonded tightly together
completely different elements make compounds

NaCl - Sodium chloride (salt)
H O - Dihydrogen oxide (water)

2

Mixtures
Can be made up of two or more elements
Mixtures can be easily separated
When separated a new substance is usually formed
Separating compounds
Passing electricity through a compound
Burning the compound
Mixing the compound with other chemicals
Lets Collect an Element!
Aim - To observe a chemical reaction between a metal and an acid

Method:
1. Measure 10mL of HCl and pour it into the test tube
2. Add a piece of magnesium and place the second test tube on top of the first. Carefully observe what happens
3. Take the test tube off an carefully light the gas in the second test tube with a match
Making a compound from its elements
Aim: to use a chemical reaction to make a compound from its elements
Materials:
4-5cm strip of magnesium
crucible with lid
pipeclay triangle
tongs
busen burner and heatproof mat
Procedure:

1. Write down your observations as you examine your piece of magnesium ribbon before placing it in the crucible with the lid on

2. Put the crucible on the pipeclay triangle as shown in class

3. Heat the crucible with a blue flame, monitoring the reaction by lifting the lid occasionally

4. When all the magnesium has changed turn off the bunsen burner and write down your observations
Decomposing Copper
Carbonate
Aim: to decompose copper carbonate
Materials:
copper carbonate
electronic balance
beaker
test tube
spatula
bunsen burner
test tube holder
tripod
paper towel
Procedure
1. place a beaker containing the test tube on the balance. tare the balance so that it reads zero.

2. Using a spatula, add 3 grams of copper carbonate into the test tube. Record the mass in grams.

3. set up the bunsen burner. light the flame, ensuring that it is on the safety flame.

4. Using the tongs to hold the top of the testube, gently wave the base of the test tube through the flame twice. Record and changes.

5. Continue to do this for 2 minutes, recording any changes.

6. allow the test tube to cool. wipe any black powder from the outside of the tube with the paper towel
7. Place the test tube in the original beaker. check the balance is zero.

8. reweigh the test tube and beaker and record the mass in grams. note any change in weight
Full transcript