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Hot Springs

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Geina iskander

on 7 December 2013

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Transcript of Hot Springs

Unique abiotic factors of hot springs
Hot Springs are also known as geothermal springs because of their lukewarm to boiling hot temperatures. The average temperature of hot springs is about 143°F or 61°C.
For example, in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, the hot springs temperature are about 131°F.
Producer's in hot springs.
The principal alga of hot acid waters in hot springs are Cyanidium caldarium who can tolerate very acidic waters.
Typical Animal Life
Hot Springs
Geina Iskander

Distribution of hot springs
Since hot springs vary in temperature, and acidity, only certain producers can tolerate such conditions. Most producers and bacteria and producers since they are able to thrive in conditions above 50 degrees Celsius.
The United States Hot spring distribution map.
Moreover, the hot springs have a variety of pH levels. Some hot springs are very basic while others are very acidic.
For example, the Norris Geyser Basin contain a pH between 2 and 3 While in Gold Fork Hot Springs, the pH level is between 9 and 10.

Some hot springs like the Champagne Pool in New Zealand contains an abundant efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Norris Geyser Basin
Gold Fork Hot Springs
Producers such as thermophilic bacteria can survive very high temperatures. This bacteria is prominent in hot springs.
Synechococcus elongatus is a freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium found in hot springs.
Cyanobacteria, are prokaryotes that are able to obtain their energy through photosynthesis.
Chloroflexus aurantiacus
The most common animal in hot springs are ephydrid flies, who are often found in profusion on the microbial mats. These flies mate in the hot spring environment .
Ostracods - found today in almost all aquatic environments including hot springs
Naegleria fowleri is commonly found in warm freshwater.
Thermophiles thrive in extreme hot conditions such as those provided by the hot springs.
Legionella bacteria can be found in natural hot springs, such as at Yellowstone. They belong to a special group of bacterial pathogens that evade host defenses by parasitizing phagocytes.
Ecological services
The microbial mats are mostly fueled by primary carbon dioxide fixation by cyanobacteria. These communities were dominant in the early Earth and helped to establish the oxidizing environment of the planet.
Cyanobacteria and algal species carry out photosynthesis which produces oxygen.
High temperature cyanobacteria are capable of nitrogen fixation .
Sulfolobus can lower the pH of an acidic environment because one of the products of a sulfur oxidizing metabolism is sulfuric acid creating a habitat better suited to their collective needs.
Economic services
Hot springs are great tourist attractions at many parks such as Yellow Stone National park, and other places around the world. Tourism helps bring in lots of money for the economy.
Hot springs are used for therapy. As a result, rehabilitation clinics use them with patients who might be going through some type of stress or pain. This can also help bring in money.
Spa's are a big thing when it comes to hot springs. Some people spend a substantial amount of money on hot spring spa's for a cleansing effect on their skin and relieve their stress. This would help profit the economy.
Human threats
Geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, however, eventually specific locations may end up cooling down the hot springs killing the thermophile bacteria.
Irrigation systems from several urban areas can decrease the amount of water from hot springs and transform the ecosystem.
Release of hydrogen sulfide,from geothermal plants and the disposal of some geothermal fluids, which may contain low levels of toxic materials can greatly effect the hot springs, and the species that live there.
Geothermal power plants harms many species of bacteria that is imperative for earth's atmosphere.
Work Cited
http://bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu/themicrobialworld/LAHT/b1.html
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/life-in-hot-springs/page-4
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-01/ci-hbf012506.php
http://www.nps.gov/hosp/index.htm
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