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ECON 197 Mass Incarceration Presentation

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Jessica Manuela Loya

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of ECON 197 Mass Incarceration Presentation

Economic and Social Inefficiency of Mass Incarceration In the United States
Mass Incarceration
Incarceration Trends in America
Government Costs of Mass Incarceration
Public (Individual, Family, & Community) Economic Costs
Social Costs of Mass Incarceration
Racism
Effects of Children
Recidivism
Alternate Solutions to Mass Incarceration
Today, the US is 5% of the World population and has 25% of world prisoners.
From 1980 to 2008, the number of people incarcerated in America quadrupled-from roughly 500,000 to 2.3 million people (NAACP)
Racial Disparities in Incarceration Trends

Contradiction?
Rising Incarceration - Decreasing Crime Rates
Incarceration Trends in The United States
Current US Incarceration Policies
The incarceration rate is driven by three factors: crime rates, the number of prison sentences per number of crimes committed, and expected time served in prison among those sentenced
Policies responsible for the increase
Mandatory Sentencing Laws - Minimum requirements for sentencing certain crimes.
War on Drugs - Hard on Criminals Approach
Three Strikes Rule
- Repeat Offenders get longer stricter sentences

Policy Effects on Incarcerated Population

$80 billion dollars spent annually on Corrections expenditures at local, state, & federal levels
Cost of Incarcerating one inmate on average in 2010 was $31,307 annually
Today's high rate of incarceration is considerably costly to American taxpayers, with state governments bearing the bulk of the fiscal burden.
When including expenditures for police protection and judicial and legal services, the direct costs of crime rise to $261 billion
Local & Federal Government Expenditures On Mass Incarceration
What about California?
Between 1975 and 2006, California’s prison population increased eightfold – from 20,000 prisoners to 163,000
From 1980 to 2006, California’s jail population more than tripled – from about 24,000 to 80,000.
In humane Conditions
CA State Cost of Incarceration

Public Economic Costs of Crime & Mass Incarceration
Public Economic Costs of Crime & Incarceration
Individual Costs
Lowers absolute economic mobility
among the formerly incarcerated
Negatively impacts earnings during peak earning years, on average, incarceration eliminates
more than 50% loss earnings white man
41% loss earnings Hispanic man
44% loss earnings Black man
Expected earnings loss $179,000
just through age 48 for people who have been incarcerated
Past incarceration,
reduced subsequent wages by 11 percent,
cut annual employment by nine weeks and reduced yearly earnings by 40%.
THE FISCAL CONSEQUENCES OF
THE NATION’S INCARCERATION
BOOM EXTEND WELL BEYOND
STRAINED STATE BUDGETS,
IMPAIRING THE LIVELIHOODS
OF FORMER INMATES AND,
BY EXTENSION, THE WELL-BEING
OF THEIR FAMILIES AND
COMMUNITIES.
Effects on Families & Children
1 of 28 children in US—(more than 3.6%)now has a parent in jail or prison.
More than 1 in 9 black children has a parent in prison or jail
two factors influenced by parental incarceration—:
family income and children’s educational outcomes—have direct implications for children’s future upward economic mobility
the period that the father was behind bars, the average child’s family income fell 22% compared with that of the year preceding the father’s incarceration
23% of children with a father who has served time in a jail or prison have been expelled or suspended from school, compared with just 4 percent of children whose fathers have not been incarcerated
Community Economic Impacts
Incarceration is concentrated in communities of disadvantage, especially
communities of color

“the spatial concentration of incarceration . . .
impedes access to jobs for youth in those communities because it de-
creases the pool of men who can serve as their mentors and their links
to the working world . . . generating employment discrimination
against entire neighborhoods.”

Incarceration reduces community solidarity and attachment to communities” and weakens “the social processes on which social controls depends"
Community Costs:
Increased crime reduces property values and decreases future investment in infrastructure.

Stigmatization of the neighborhood - Decreases in Education & Community Empowerment Opportunities

Repeating Cycle of Poverty

Taxes Paid to Prison Costs:
CA - ($ in 000s) : $7,932,388 (Most expensive in US)





Social Costs of Mass Incarceration
Racism in Crime & Mass Incarceration
Most at risk African American males between the ages of 16-32
African Americans are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whites (NAACP)
African Americans now constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population (NAACP)

The Economics:
Example: Black Male -- Incarcerated for 10 yrs (age 18-28) - 1 child

State Cost of Incarceration for 10 yrs: $474,210.00 ($47,421 annually)
Individual Costs of Incarceration:
Legal Costs (~$15,000)
Lost of wages (Minimum Wage Earning- 32 hrs wk): $ 12,528.00 year
Family Costs of Incarceration:
Legal Costs (~$8,000)
Increased expenses due to adverse effects - mental health of child
Alternative Solutions to Mass Incarceration
Revise Crime & Imprisonment Policies - Reducing Sentences - Reducing Severity of Non-violent crimes


Funding Social Programs to Prevent Crime & Improve Economic Potential
Education (Early Education, Elementary, Middle, High Schools)
Health Access - Mental Health & Physical Health Programs
Community Enhancement Programs
Dignified Job Opportunities
Eliminating the School to Prison Pipeline --- Fund Education
"Young, male African American high-school dropouts have higher odds of being in jail than being employed."
Economic Benefits of Funding Education
The annual cost of incarcerating an individual is about $32,000, while the annual cost of a quality public education is about $11,000.


41% of all prisoners have not completed high school, compared to 18 percent of the general adult population


Decreasing the number of high school dropouts by half would nationally produce $45 billion per year in net economic benefit to society.


A 5% increase in the male graduate rate would save $5 billion in crime related expenses
Access to Health & Mental Health Services
“What are the health issues that if we addressed them could help to deal with some of the root causes of incarceration?"

Addiction and mental health are two of the primary health conditions. If those can be effectively addressed within the community, then you can lower the number of people who are incarcerated and the number of people who are re-incarcerated because of violating conditions of supervised release

Mental illness must be addressed so that the
individual can fully engage in the interventions that are associated with
reduced recidivism.
Community Enhancement Programs

Life skills programs delivered by paid professionals within institutions can be one necessary component of teaching new skills; additional programming delivered by members of the community have the distinct advantage of being a non-tax burden skills-teaching approach that connects incarcerated individuals with
positive community support networks and provides a learning environment free of the institutionalized and sometimes strained relationships that may exist
between incarcerated individuals and paid staff.
Economic Inefficiencies
Government Expenditures
Individual Wage Loss
Increasing Unemployment following release
Lost Labor Force with imprisoned
Intergenerational economic mobility loss
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