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History of the English Language

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Mariana Antonela Mena

on 19 May 2015

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Transcript of History of the English Language

IRISH ENGLISH
History of the English Language
Ireland´s Position with respect to the UK
Varieties
Irish Gaelic

-->  Irish Celts
Anglo -Irish English

--> Protestants in Eire
Hiberno-English
/
Irish English
Ulter-Scots

--> Protestants in NI


Today´s Official Language:

ENGLISH and GAELIC


Colonization
12th c
:
Beginning of English Domination
14th c
:
Adaptation of the manner, fashion and, significantly, "the language of the enemies". Irish regained importance
15th c
:
Statute of Kilkenny. English control limited to "The Pale"
Political Incorporation
17th c
:
English control was reasserted
Strong Anti-English sentiment
18th c
:
New democratic and nationalist ideas
1798
Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom
(
Act of Union-1800
)
Nationalist Reaction
1800
:
English was the 1st language. Irish was increasingly abandoned by the 19th c.
Three main reasons:
Famines (1840s)
Introduction of universal English-language education
Ideas of nationalism and language


1921:

The establishment of the Irish Free State


"The Troubles"
A period of ethno-political conflict in Northern Ireland
The main reason was the constitutional status of Northern Ireland
Recurring acts of violence between Northern Ireland's Nationalist communities and Unionist communities
1988 the leaders of the Sinn Fein political party and the Social Democratic Labour Party met to star a peace process
"The Blarney"
"Blarney" : finding the right speech in an extraordinary situation, when you do not have a word prepared.
"The Blarney" is believed to be an Irish quality.


Blarney Castle in Country Cork was occupied by MacCarthymore, a man with a great gift to talk and prevarication
Queen Elizabeth I urged him to surrender the Castle since his loyalty was doubtful
MacCarthymore kept on replying he would do Queen´s will but nothing ever happened
After many attempts, the Queen surrendered and she is said to have said " it´s all Blarney- he says he will do it but he never means to do what he says"

History of the word "Blarney":
The Legend of the Blarney Stone:
It is situated on one of the Blarney Castles´ parapets.
It is considered the STONE of ELOQUENCE
Every year, thousands of visitors have to kiss it lying on their back and lowering their head down over the edges of the wall.
They are supposed to never be lost for words again.
Grammatical Features
Phonological Features
Lexical Features
There are
local constructions
: sevendable for wonderful
"Destroyed"
-->
being tired or worn out
(I'm destroyed)
A tendency towards malapropism
, i.e., the habit of selecting words whose choice is often slightly, and ludicrously, inappropriate.
For instance, formularies instead of "formalities", declivity instead of "proclivity", piano roses for "peonies" and windystood instead of "windowsill".
Use of 4 kinds of Present Tense:
"I go to school" | "I am going to school" | "I be going to school" | "I do be going to school"
Tendency to Left Dislocation and Clefting:
"Daylight robbery I'd call it"------(I'd call it daylight robbery)
"It's Joe that I saw yesterday------(I saw Joe yesterday)
"It's him I do be thinking of"-------(I've been thinking of him)
"It's herself that's coming now"------(She's coming now)
A strong reluctant to say "yes" or "no" -->
"MAISE" (indeed) and "CINNTE" (sure)
"Would you like to sing?" "Indeed, I would" or
"I would surely"
Not have equivalent for indirect questions introduced by "whether" and "if"
. --> Have interrogative word order : "He asked would I like sth to eat".

The 2nd person plural is "YOUSE" and the use of "TILL"
meaning "
in order to
" "come till I kiss you"

In the simple past tense, the Irish say [am/is/are] after [doing sth]
--> "he is after writing a letter" (He wrote a letter)

Conditionals
--> Greater presence --> Replace Simple Present Tense with conditional "would" & Simple Past Tense "would have" "John asked me would I buy a loaf of bread"
Rhotic accent
Breathiness and aspiration of consonants -->
patron [pahtron], data [dahta] and status [stahtus].

/ / --> / t/ /ð/ --> /d/
. SO, the words "thin" / "tin" - "then" / "den" are homophones.
Diphthongs --> monophthongs
-- /bout/ > /bo:t/ and /kein/ > /ke:n/
The
/ai/
in night may become in
/oi/

In words like took, where
"oo"
usually represents /u/, speakers may use
/u:/
.
• The
/^/
of words such as cut tends to be rounded to
/o/
.
Words like
tea, sea
and
please
are pronounced as the words
tay, say
and
plays
Many words that take initial syllable stress in SE -->
2nd syllable
De'ficit

S
” +
e
or
i
=
/sh/
-->
Sh
ecretary for secretary
Video
Video and Activity
Features of Irish English
Varieties of Irish English
Location
IRELAND
1998 - BELFAST AGREEMENT
(Good Friday Agreement)
Grammatical Features
The Irish Brogue
Brogue= irish word for shoe /bròg/
Irishmen were said to speak with a shoe in their tongues
MOST IRISH SPEAKERS LEARNT THEIR ENGLISH FROM
NON-STANDARD SPEAKERS
Newfoundland
First English speaking colony in the New World
Many Irish words --> froster, maneen and sulick

Irish-English quickly became dominant
Barbados Settlement
Oliver Cromwell used it as a camp for
prisoners taken during his battles in Ireland
They speak
"Bajan"
(Barbadian English)
Australia
After the economic depression and famine.
Words that may come from Irish --> sheila, to nick, to nobble, to peg out, etc
Borrowed uses --> youse (2nd person pl)
must not (musn’t)
Till (in order to)
“come here till I kiss you”
History
Video: How to do an Irish Accent
The Spread of English
The Spread of English
USA
Use of “I seen” instead of “I saw”
Use of the definite article
Words like shenanigan, smithereens, buddy,etc
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CÓRDOBA
FACULTAD DE LENGUAS
ENGLISH IN IRELAND
Students: Mena, Mariana Antonela
Tejeda, Melina
Irish: The Loaded Weapon
English is not the native language of Ireland
Full transcript