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Biological Basis

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Bevin Schmer

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of Biological Basis

The Nervous System (Weiten p. 79-92)
Biological Basis
of Psychology

The Nervous System
(Weiten p. 79-92
The Brain
The Glands
Heredity
AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:
• Identify basic processes and systems in the biological bases of behavior, including parts of the neuron and the process of transmission of a signal between neurons.
• Discuss the influence of drugs on neurotransmitters (e.g., reuptake mechanisms, agonists, antagonists).
• Discuss the effect of the endocrine system on behavior.
• Describe the nervous system and its subdivisions and functions:
- central and peripheral nervous systems;
- major brain regions, lobes, and cortical areas;
- brain lateralization and hemispheric specialization.
• Discuss the role of neuroplasticity in traumatic brain injury.
• Recount historic and contemporary research strategies and technologies that support research (e.g., case studies, split-brain research, imaging techniques).
• Discuss psychology’s abiding interest in how heredity, environment, and evolution work together to shape behavior.
• Predict how traits and behavior can be selected for their adaptive value.
• Identify key contributors (e.g., Paul Broca, Charles Darwin, Michael Gazzaniga, Roger Sperry, Carl Wernicke).

The Nervous System
The Brain
The Glands
Heredity
The BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE is concerned with the links between biology and behavior. This perspective includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behavior genetics, and evolutionary psychology.
Neuron
Parts of a neuron
Dendrite
Axon
Myelin sheath
Axon terminal (terminal buttons)
Synapse
Cell body (soma)
Nucleus
Glia Cells
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine
Monoamines (Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)
GABA
Glutamate
Endorphins
Neuron Activity
Resting potential
Action potential
Absolute refractory period
Relative refractory period
Synthesis -> release->binding->inactivation->reuptake
Synaptic Transmissions
Synaptic cleft
Presynaptic neuron
Postsynaptic neuron
Postsynaptic potential (PSP)
Reuptake
The Nervous System
“Neurons that fire together wire together”
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain
Glia cells
Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Afferent nerve fibers
Efferent nerve fibers
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
STRUCTURES OF THE BRAIN
Hindbrain
Medulla, cerebellum, pons, and top of spinal cord
Midbrain
Reticular activating system
Pituitary gland
Limbic System
Forebrain
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Cerebrum (cerebral cortex)
Corpus callosum
Areas of the brain
Frontal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe
Parietal lobe
Wernicke’s area
Broca’s area


METHODS OF STUDYING THE BRAIN
Accidents
Lesions (Lesioning):
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS):
EEG (electroencephalograph
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT scan, CT scan):
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Functional MRI (fMRI):
Positron Emission Tomography (PET):
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB):

Parts of a Neuron
Helpful Videos
Pinky & the Brain:
Parts of the Brain
Sheep Brain
Dissection
The Regions of the Brain
Gazzaniga
Split Brain Research
The Endocrine System
THE BRAIN-> THE PITUITARY GLAND -> ENDOCRINE ORGAN (GLAND) -> TARGET ORGAN (CAN INCLUDE THE BRAIN)
Glands produce hormones
Hormones:Letter as
Neurotransmitters:Text messages
Exocrine v. Endocrine Glands
Endocrine system
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Adrenal gland
Gonads
Thyroid
Pancreatic gland
Parathyroid
Chromosomes
Genes

Dominant v. Recesive Characteristics

Genotype v. Phenotype

Studying heredity

Evolutionary basis of behavior
Darwin
Origin of Species (1859)
Natural selection
Adaptation

Epigenetics - Nature v. Nurture
Phineas Gage
The Love Competition - fMRI Scanning
***CHECK SANDALLS' POWERPOINT ABOUT HEREDITY - LINKED ON ALT RESOURCES PAGE***
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