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GCSE PE Revision

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by

Hannah Russell

on 15 September 2011

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Transcript of GCSE PE Revision

GCSE PE Revision Benefits Mental Physical Social relates to how well you relate to others relate to how your approch and attitude changes due to activity relates to what changes happen to the body because of activity Opportunities Coach Volunteer Sports leader Performer Official Performance Pyramid Elite Performance Participation Foundation Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 2 Stage 1 P.E.S.S.C.L Physical Education School Sport and Club Link Influences Cultural Health and well-being Socio-economic Image Influential people Resources Cost Status Disability Race Age Gender Location Access to Availability Time Family Friends Role models Health problems Illness Media Fashion Health Related Fitness Skill Related Fitness Muscular Endurance Muscular Strength Cardiovascular Fitness Body Composition Flexibility Balance Coordination Reaction Time Power Speed Sport England Grow Sustain Excel To increase the number of people taken part Keep people involved once they have started Increase the number of talented performers through various opportunities provided by the national governing bodies Meanings Health Fitness Exercise A state of complete mental, physical and social well-being and merely the absence of disease or infirmity The ability to meet the demands of the environment and still have energy left An activity requiring phsyical effort that helps to sustain or improve your health and fitness Training Principles Specificity Progressive Overload Individual differences/needs Rest and Recovery Diet Carbohydrate Protein Water Minerals Vitamins Fibre Fats Samato Types Endomorphic Mesomorphic Ectomorphic Cardiovascular System The Heart The Blood Effects of exercise on the Cardiovascular System The Blood Vessels Red Blood Cells In adults they are produced in bone marrow of long bones. During exercise the blood increases in thickness as water is removed as waste Also known as erythocytes. Body contains millions of them. Their main job is to carry oxygen around the body and to transport carbondioxide, a waste product to the lungs White Blood Cells 3 major classes of white blood cells Also known as leukocytes protect the body by fighting infection at its source, repairing damaged tissue after an injury and destroying bacteria When cuts and grazes occur, the white blood cells gather to stop bacteria from entering the body. When a scab forms it is made up of dead leukocytes Platelets Small parts of larger cell. They clump together and clot at the skins surface after a graze or cut. They also do the same job internally on small, damaged blood cells Clotting is important to stop blood loss from the body and to stop internal bleeding Plasma The 10% of plasma that is not water contains a mixture of salts, chlorine, amino acids, glucose, antibodies, fibringens (which help clotting), hormones + waste products, such as urea and carbondioxide Plasma is mostly made up of water. It makes 55% of volume of blood and helps the blood flow easier by the use of plasma proteins The Effects of Exercise on Heart Rate + Blood Flow The resting heart rate is about 72 per minute, although this varies with gender and age. This is sufficient to supply the muscles with the necessary blood and nutrients The total volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute. Cardio output. Every heart beat, pumps blood out of the heart; this is called the stroke volume (per beat) In these is haemoglobin Oxygen chemically attaches itself to it to make oxyhaemoglobin. This is how oxygen is transported to the working muscles and carbondioxide is taken to the lungs, transported in a solution of plasma There are fewer white blood cells than red blood cells in the body STROKE VOLUME X HEART RATE = CARDIO OUTPUT The Circulatory System When the heart beats (contracts) it is called systole. this action forces the blood through the arteries around the body When the heart relaxes it fills with blood returning from the veins. This is called the diastole or diastolic phase. The heart has 4 chambers. The 2 atrias collect blood and the 2 ventricles pump the blood out of the heart Oxygen and nutirents are transported to parts of the body, while waste or toxic products are removed Antibodies in the blood help fight disease, and platelets help to clot the blood at the source of a cutto prevent other germs from entering the body Relies on: 1) A transport medium
2) Transport vessel
3) A pump Controls body temperature The septum divides the left and right side of the heart so that the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood don't mix 1) Right ventricle 5) Left atruim 9) Rest of the body 2) Pulmonary artery 6) Mitral valve 10) Superior vena cava 3) Lungs 7) Left ventricle 11) Right atruim 4) Pulmonary vein 8) Aorta 12) Tricuspid valve 13) Right ventricle Sets of valves are positioned in the heart and veins to stop the back flow of blood Key Terms Cirulatory system Superior vena cava Valve Systemic Circuit Pulmonary Circuit Transports blood using the heart and blood vessels Blood vessel transporting deoxygenated blood back to the heart Openings allowing blood to flow in one direction only, founnd in the heart and veins Transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, then carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart Transports deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the heart , then carries oxygenated blood back to the heart Aorta Main blood vessel leaving the heart Septum Wall of muscle dividing the left and right sides of the heart 3 main Types of blood vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. (Except the pulmonary artery) Outer layer is tough and fibrous, the inner layer is elastic Have small passage ways for blood (internal lumen- the open space inside a blood vessel that blood travels through Carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs (except the pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood) Veins are tough and non-elastic fibres (thinner than arteries). Elastic fibres of involuntary muscle (not controlled) Have large lumen and the blood flows slower at a lower pressure Thinner walls than arteries Contains valves Microscopic blood vessels, thinner than a human hair. Most only let single blood cells through Gas exchange takes place so the oxygen and nutrients are passed into tissues and carbondioxide and waste products pass from the tissues into the blood. Takes place in the walls of the capillaries Found in muscles and lungs Effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Long term Short term Oxygen and haemoglobin combine to form oxyhaemoglobin Blood vessels dialate at the skins surface to release heat, causing skin to redden System, such as digestive system, are bypassed Waste product exit the body via pores and capillaries at the skins surface Stroke volume increases Heart rate increases Cardio output increases Arteries automatically widen Heart beats harder Reduce risk of coronary artery disease Develops a stronger heart beat Lower resting heart rate (less stress on heart) Cope with increased physical stress more effectively Deliver oxygen to working muscles more effectively Recover from the stress of exercise quicker Increased VO 2 Skeletal System Moderate range Great range Limited range Types of movement Abduction Adduction Flexion Extension Plantar Flexion Dorsi Flexion Rotation Types of bone Flat Long Irregular Short Are tough and can wiothstand hard impact. Mainly linked with protection Due to their length, created leverage when playing sport. Helps to generate speed, force and power Perform fine movements Can make small adjustments Act as a shock absorber Have no uniform shape Joints Synovial Pivot Hinge Ball and socket Located at the shoulder and hip Located at the elbow and knee Located at the neck (atlas and axis) and the elbow Freely moveable joints Allow the greatest movement The angles don't change, but the joints move in a circular motion This is the opposite action to adduction. the limbs are abducted from the centre Bring spart of the body towards the centre. The movement of your toes pointing up when standing on your heels The action of the toes moving down when standing on your toes Opposite to flexion. The angle of the joint increases between the bone at the joint Closing an angle at a joint. Funtions of the skeleton Shape Support Movement Production of blood cells Protection Gives us general shape and determines our height The skeleton helps the body move and provides framwork which muscles attach to The production of red and white blood cells takes place in long bones The bones support the rest of the body Some bones help to protect internal organs Skeletal System Cranium Mandible Scapula Sternum Clavicle Ribs Humerus Ulna Radius Tibia Fibula Pelvis Vertebrae Femur Patella Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx Carpels Tarsals Metatarsals Metacarpels Phalanges The vertebral column also known as the spinal column, spine or back bone. A chain of 33 vertebrae which protects the spinal cord, supports the head and provides points of attachment for the pelvis and the rib cage Vertebrae (singular vertebra) The 33 bones of the vertebral column. A typical vertebra has a thick "chunk" (the centrum or body), various projections, or processes and a antral hole- the vertebral foramen (pl. foramina). The foramina together form the neural, spinal or vertebral canal through which the spinal cord runs 5 bones which are fused together 7 bones 12 bones 5 bones 4 bones fused together Muscle types Involuntary muscles Voluntary muscles Cardiac muscle Also known as smooth muscles, are not controlled, they work automatically Also known as skeletal or striated muscles, are the most common muscle type in the body Type of nvoluntary muscle as it is not controlled consciously but works automatically Muscular functions The pulling muscle is called the prime mover (or agonist). The muscle relaxing is called the antagonist When a muscle contracts it becomes shorter and when it relaxes it becomes longer Muscle fibres Fast twitch muscle fibres Slow twitch muscle fibres Fast twitch muscle fibres are used for more explosive activities, which need quicker reactions, or shorter bursts of energy Contract fast and produce a powerful action but have a limited oxygen supply Slow twitch muscle fibres are used for endurance activities which are slow and prolonged Contract many times and stay efficient over a longer period of time Muscle contraction Isometric Isotonic Isotonic muscle contractions occur when there is movement of the body. They happen frequently in game play The end of the muscles move closer to make the action. As a muscle contracts, it causes concentric movement. when it relaxes it is an eccentric movement Working the muscles isotonically improves dynamic strength. It develops cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems and increases power and endurance Isometric muscle contractions take place when the muscle length stays the sameand improves static strength It is used for stabilizing parts of the body and holding it steady so that movement can take place elsewhere It does not develop power or muscular endurance; the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems are not improved. Muscular Injury R.I.C.E Recommended treatment for strains Rest Ice Compression Elevation Muscles Trapezius Deltoids Triceps Latissimus Dorsi Gluteals/Glutimus Maximus Hamstring Gastrocnemius Quadriceps Abdominals Biceps Pectorals Respiratory System Terms Ventilation/breathing taking in oxygen and expelling carbondioxide External respiration the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood Internal respiration food break down, using oxygen and producing carbondioxide
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