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GCSE PE Revision
Transcript of GCSE PE Revision
2) Transport vessel
3) A pump Controls body temperature The septum divides the left and right side of the heart so that the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood don't mix 1) Right ventricle 5) Left atruim 9) Rest of the body 2) Pulmonary artery 6) Mitral valve 10) Superior vena cava 3) Lungs 7) Left ventricle 11) Right atruim 4) Pulmonary vein 8) Aorta 12) Tricuspid valve 13) Right ventricle Sets of valves are positioned in the heart and veins to stop the back flow of blood Key Terms Cirulatory system Superior vena cava Valve Systemic Circuit Pulmonary Circuit Transports blood using the heart and blood vessels Blood vessel transporting deoxygenated blood back to the heart Openings allowing blood to flow in one direction only, founnd in the heart and veins Transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, then carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart Transports deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the heart , then carries oxygenated blood back to the heart Aorta Main blood vessel leaving the heart Septum Wall of muscle dividing the left and right sides of the heart 3 main Types of blood vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. (Except the pulmonary artery) Outer layer is tough and fibrous, the inner layer is elastic Have small passage ways for blood (internal lumen- the open space inside a blood vessel that blood travels through Carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs (except the pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood) Veins are tough and non-elastic fibres (thinner than arteries). Elastic fibres of involuntary muscle (not controlled) Have large lumen and the blood flows slower at a lower pressure Thinner walls than arteries Contains valves Microscopic blood vessels, thinner than a human hair. Most only let single blood cells through Gas exchange takes place so the oxygen and nutrients are passed into tissues and carbondioxide and waste products pass from the tissues into the blood. Takes place in the walls of the capillaries Found in muscles and lungs Effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Long term Short term Oxygen and haemoglobin combine to form oxyhaemoglobin Blood vessels dialate at the skins surface to release heat, causing skin to redden System, such as digestive system, are bypassed Waste product exit the body via pores and capillaries at the skins surface Stroke volume increases Heart rate increases Cardio output increases Arteries automatically widen Heart beats harder Reduce risk of coronary artery disease Develops a stronger heart beat Lower resting heart rate (less stress on heart) Cope with increased physical stress more effectively Deliver oxygen to working muscles more effectively Recover from the stress of exercise quicker Increased VO 2 Skeletal System Moderate range Great range Limited range Types of movement Abduction Adduction Flexion Extension Plantar Flexion Dorsi Flexion Rotation Types of bone Flat Long Irregular Short Are tough and can wiothstand hard impact. Mainly linked with protection Due to their length, created leverage when playing sport. Helps to generate speed, force and power Perform fine movements Can make small adjustments Act as a shock absorber Have no uniform shape Joints Synovial Pivot Hinge Ball and socket Located at the shoulder and hip Located at the elbow and knee Located at the neck (atlas and axis) and the elbow Freely moveable joints Allow the greatest movement The angles don't change, but the joints move in a circular motion This is the opposite action to adduction. the limbs are abducted from the centre Bring spart of the body towards the centre. The movement of your toes pointing up when standing on your heels The action of the toes moving down when standing on your toes Opposite to flexion. The angle of the joint increases between the bone at the joint Closing an angle at a joint. Funtions of the skeleton Shape Support Movement Production of blood cells Protection Gives us general shape and determines our height The skeleton helps the body move and provides framwork which muscles attach to The production of red and white blood cells takes place in long bones The bones support the rest of the body Some bones help to protect internal organs Skeletal System Cranium Mandible Scapula Sternum Clavicle Ribs Humerus Ulna Radius Tibia Fibula Pelvis Vertebrae Femur Patella Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx Carpels Tarsals Metatarsals Metacarpels Phalanges The vertebral column also known as the spinal column, spine or back bone. A chain of 33 vertebrae which protects the spinal cord, supports the head and provides points of attachment for the pelvis and the rib cage Vertebrae (singular vertebra) The 33 bones of the vertebral column. A typical vertebra has a thick "chunk" (the centrum or body), various projections, or processes and a antral hole- the vertebral foramen (pl. foramina). The foramina together form the neural, spinal or vertebral canal through which the spinal cord runs 5 bones which are fused together 7 bones 12 bones 5 bones 4 bones fused together Muscle types Involuntary muscles Voluntary muscles Cardiac muscle Also known as smooth muscles, are not controlled, they work automatically Also known as skeletal or striated muscles, are the most common muscle type in the body Type of nvoluntary muscle as it is not controlled consciously but works automatically Muscular functions The pulling muscle is called the prime mover (or agonist). The muscle relaxing is called the antagonist When a muscle contracts it becomes shorter and when it relaxes it becomes longer Muscle fibres Fast twitch muscle fibres Slow twitch muscle fibres Fast twitch muscle fibres are used for more explosive activities, which need quicker reactions, or shorter bursts of energy Contract fast and produce a powerful action but have a limited oxygen supply Slow twitch muscle fibres are used for endurance activities which are slow and prolonged Contract many times and stay efficient over a longer period of time Muscle contraction Isometric Isotonic Isotonic muscle contractions occur when there is movement of the body. They happen frequently in game play The end of the muscles move closer to make the action. As a muscle contracts, it causes concentric movement. when it relaxes it is an eccentric movement Working the muscles isotonically improves dynamic strength. It develops cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems and increases power and endurance Isometric muscle contractions take place when the muscle length stays the sameand improves static strength It is used for stabilizing parts of the body and holding it steady so that movement can take place elsewhere It does not develop power or muscular endurance; the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems are not improved. Muscular Injury R.I.C.E Recommended treatment for strains Rest Ice Compression Elevation Muscles Trapezius Deltoids Triceps Latissimus Dorsi Gluteals/Glutimus Maximus Hamstring Gastrocnemius Quadriceps Abdominals Biceps Pectorals Respiratory System Terms Ventilation/breathing taking in oxygen and expelling carbondioxide External respiration the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood Internal respiration food break down, using oxygen and producing carbondioxide